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StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
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/* Fixes a feature in Firefox where print preview displays the noscript content */
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To get started with this blank TiddlyWiki, you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
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These InterfaceOptions for customising TiddlyWiki are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs)

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups
<<option chkAutoSave>> AutoSave
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> CaseSensitiveSearch
<<option chkAnimate>> EnableAnimations

Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
Turns out, advertising stereotypes men too
A look at some of the worst male-bashing commercials. 
Judy Berman

Jun. 16, 2008 | We all know advertising preys on the worst gender stereotypes: Only men drink beer, of course, and women dominate the laundry detergent and household cleaner demographic. Feminists have been pointing this out for years, but now men's-rights advocates are declaring their disgust with the advertising industry. In an article called "Top 10: Worst Male-Bashing Ads," Ask Men's Marc Voyer ranks the most egregious offenders of 2008. 

A few of Voyer's picks are spot-on. An ad for 1st for Women, a South African insurance company, shows a guy running after a car full of his friends, playing a sophomoric joke by not stopping to let him in. They get so caught up in their game that they drive off a cliff. The punch line? "Why we insure women only." You can watch the commercial here: 

Many of the ads are just as insulting to women as they are to men. A Roomba spot (below) features a mother complaining that her kids are pigs and her husband is a donkey (or, as Voyer suggests, a jackass). Since she can't handle cleaning up after a stable of barnyard animals all by herself, she enlists the help of a robotic vacuum. "Forget men sharing baby duties, knowing how to vacuum, doing dishes, and picking up after themselves and others. Instead, the cliched message is that women are the civilized voice burdened with managing men and their ingrained frat-boy mindset," writes Voyer. But ingrained in the idea that men are constitutionally incapable of cooking a meal is the equally pernicious assumption that women should take full responsibility for all household chores. 

Since feminists have acquired the reputation of being utterly humorless, I'd also like to note that Voyer may also take himself a little too seriously at times. He rages against a Polysporin spot that shows a father careening down a Slip-N-Slide and into a bunch of garbage cans. "The moral of this story: Dads are even dumber and more childlike than their own offspring," Voyer seethes. Yeah, it's also called slapstick. The clip reminded me of the Thanksgiving when my own father accidentally landed in my aunt's swimming pool. His clothes were soaked, I was in hysterics and the story remains a family favorite. It's a gaffe anyone could have made, and no one thought less of his intelligence -- much less questioned the competence of his entire gender -- because of it. 

-- Judy Berman 

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The process of analyzing each prospect and customer to maximize the chances of reaching a sales goal.
The mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption.
<html><div class="tool last" id="print"><a onclick="window.print();return false;" href=""><img width="22" height="22" title="Print this page" src="http://images.apple.com/support/iknow/images/i_print.png" alt="" /></a></div> 			<div class="clear">&nbsp;</div><p><!-- ADDTHIS BUTTON BEGIN --> <script type="text/javascript">
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 cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
      <td style="vertical-align: top;"><img
 style="width: 500px; height: 333px;" alt="Ad"
      <td style="vertical-align: top;">Advertising is a
form of communication whose purpose is to inform potential customers
about products and services and how to obtain and use them. Many
advertisements are also designed to generate increased consumption of
those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of
brand image and brand loyalty.<br><p>
For these purposes advertisements often
contain both factual information and persuasive messages. Every major
medium is used to deliver these messages, including: television, radio,
movies, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, and
billboards.&nbsp; Advertising is often placed by an advertising
agency on behalf of a company.&nbsp; Advertising spending has
increased dramatically in recent years. In the United States alone in
2006, spending on advertising reached $155 billion, reported TNS Media
That same year, according to a report titled Global
Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2006-2010 issued by global accounting
firm PricewaterhouseCoopers, worldwide advertising spending was $385
billion. The accounting firm's report projected worldwide advertisement
spending to exceed half-a-trillion dollars by 2010.
According to the book "Advertising &amp; Promotion", by Belch,
Belch and Guolla, advertising is any form of paid non-personal
communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an
identified sponsor.
The paid aspect of this definition reflects the
fact that the space or time for an advertising message generally must
be bought. The occasional exception is the 'public service

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[[Advertising]] is defined as any paid form of non personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. The //paid// aspect of this definition reflects the fact that the space or time for an advertising message generally must be bought. An occasional exception to this is the public service announcement, whose advertising space or time is donated by the media.

Marketing and Communications (IntegratedMarketingCommunications)
<a href="http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php" onclick="window.open('http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php?u='+encodeURIComponent(location.href)+'&t='+encodeURIComponent(document.title), 'facebook','toolbar=no,width=700,height=400'); return false;"><img width="16" alt="facebook" src="http://i11.tinypic.com/626e0dk.gif" height="16" /></a>

Advertising is defined as any paid form of non personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. The //paid// aspect of this definition reflects the fact that the space or time for an advertising message generally must be bought. An occasional exception to this is the public service announcement, whose advertising space or time is donated by the media.

[[Advertising Wikipedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising]]

Promotion is the coordination of all seller initiated efforts to set up channels of information and persuasion to sell goods and services or promote an idea. While implicit communication occurs through the various elements of the marketing mix (MarketingMix), most of an organization's communications with the marketplace take place as part of a carefully planned and controlled promotional program.

<iframe src="http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=etnikowines-20&o=1&p=8&l=as1&asins=1400064287&fc1=000000&IS2=1&lt1=_blank&lc1=C77329&bc1=000000&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr" style="width:120px;height:240px;" scrolling="no" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" frameborder="0"></iframe>

[[Advertising in the News|http://news.google.ca/news?um=1&ned=ca&hl=en&q=advertising]]
<object classid="clsid:D27CDB6E-AE6D-11cf-96B8-444553540000" codebase="http://download.macromedia.com/pub/shockwave/cabs/flash/swflash.cab#version=9,0,115,0" width="365" height="500"> <param name="movie" value="https://share.acrobat.com/adc/flex/mpt.swf" /> <param name="quality" value="high" /> <param name="wmode" value="transparent"/> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"/> <param name="flashvars"  value="ext=pdf&docId=a7570fdc-7c7b-46d6-aff8-41d2b961946a&lang=en_US"/> <embed src="https://share.acrobat.com/adc/flex/mpt.swf"  quality="high"  pluginspage="http://www.adobe.com/shockwave/download/download.cgi?P1_Prod_Version=ShockwaveFlash"  type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="365" height="500" wmode="transparent" allowFullScreen="true" flashvars="ext=pdf&docId=a7570fdc-7c7b-46d6-aff8-41d2b961946a&lang=en_US"> </embed> </object>
Dividing a market into different age and life-cycle groups.
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
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Information gathered in internal databases and through marketing intelligence and marketing research usually require more analysis, and managers may help in applying the information to their marketing problems. This help may include advance statistical analysis to learn more about both the relationships within a set of data and their statistical reliability.

Such analysis allows managers to go beyond means and standard deviations in the data and to answer questions about markets, marketing activities, and outcomes.
Apple Inc., (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer Inc., is an American multinational corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries[2] and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.

Marketing information about Apple:
[[Marketing Apple|http://marketingapple.com]]
[[Apple the King|http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20321611]]
Identification of Key Problem
Identify the key problem and issue presented in the case. Be careful not to identify symptoms of the problem, while failing to identify the real problems. For example, a weak case write-up may cite declining sales as a problem, when in reality, declining sales is only a symptomatic of a more complex, harder to observe, set of problems. Develop a marketing problem statement that "captures" the essence of the case problem. Convert your marketing problem statement into a question. This question should be presented in you case write-up.
Note - These cases are rich with information - they present many problems for the reader to consider. You are to choose only one problem to address in your case write-up

Marketing Problems of Apple

One of the main problems for Apple is that advancing technology is fueling more competition in an already crowded market. There are hundreds of products and brands that aim to do the same, many with very little variations.

Being the leader in a dynamic market like the portable sound systems is hard. Apple already solidified the leadership beyond the iPod with the new variation, the iPod Touch and the iPhone, product that deploy multimedia, and GPSs services and international internet calling capabilities and offer a wide range of games, transforming the iPod in a center of communication and entertainment with the option of buying music and movies on the go.

The iPod Touch and the iPhone already mastered the flash memory as media, allowing them to store up to 32 gigabytes of memory.

With all these advances, it doesn't mean the leadership position is guaranteed to last. This very week (end of may 2009), Palm, a competitor that gave a huge percentage of market share the last two years, just unveiled the gadget called 'Palm Pre', which aim directly to the iPhone and the iPod touch.

Other problems that contain a risk for the company are:

Microenvironment (shortage of resources):
Apple and other participants in the personal computer, consumer electronics and mobile communication industries also compete for various components with other industries that have experienced increased demand for their products. In addition, the Company uses some custom components that are not common to the rest of the personal computer, consumer electronics and mobile communication industries, and new products introduced by Apple often utilize custom components available from only one source until the Company has evaluated whether there is a need for, and subsequently qualifies, additional suppliers.

When a component or product, like the iPod, uses new technologies, initial capacity constraints may exist until the suppliers’ yields have matured. If the Company’s supply of a key single-sourced component for a new or existing product were delayed or constrained, if such components were available only at significantly higher prices, or if a key manufacturing vendor delayed shipments of completed products to the Company, the Company’s financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

Macroenvironment (Marketing Agents - distributors and providers)
Apple’s business and financial performance could also be adversely affected depending on the time required to obtain sufficient quantities from the original source, or to identify and obtain sufficient quantities from an alternative source. Continued availability of these components at acceptable prices, or at all, may be affected if those suppliers decided to concentrate on the production of common components instead of components customized to meet the Company’s requirements.

Significant portions of the Company’s Mac computers, iPods, iPhones, logic boards, and other assembled products are now manufactured by outsourcing partners, primarily in various parts of Asia. A significant concentration of this outsourced manufacturing is currently performed by only a few of the Company’s outsourcing partners, often in single locations.

Certain of these outsourcing partners are the sole-sourced supplier of components and manufacturing outsourcing for many of the Company’s key products including but not limited to final assembly of substantially all of the Company’s portable Mac computers, iPods, iPhones and most of the Company’s iMacs.

Although the Company works closely with its outsourcing partners on manufacturing schedules, the Company’s operating results could be adversely affected if its outsourcing partners were unable to meet their production commitments. The Company’s purchase commitments typically cover its requirements for periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. 

Natural Environment Issues:
Production and marketing of products in certain states and countries may subject the Apple to environmental, product safety and other regulations including, in some instances, the requirement to provide customers the ability to return product at the end of its useful life, and place responsibility for environmentally safe disposal or recycling with the Company.

Such laws and regulations have been passed in several jurisdictions in which the Company operates, including various countries within Europe and Asia, certain Canadian provinces and certain states within the U.S. Although the Company does not anticipate any material adverse effects in the future based on the nature of its operations and the thrust of such laws, there is no assurance that such existing laws or future laws will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition or operating results. 

Social Issues:
Some publics and groups are as well concerned iPods (and MP3 players in general) may cause social isolation. This is view as a negative consequence of the usage of products of this kind.
The marketing information system serves the company's marketing and other managers.
It may also provide information to external partners.

A good marketing information system balances the information users would //like// to have against what they really //need// and what is //feasible// to offer.

Too much information can be as harmful as too little. 
A person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
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A good teoretical definition is:
An intangible value-added aspect of a particular good that is otherwise not considered unique.

According to investopedia, Brand Equity (BrandEquity) is created through aggressive mass marketing campaigns. Good examples of companies with strong brand equity are corporations such as Nike and Coca-Cola, whose corporate logos are recognized worldwide.

Acording to Corebrands.com, the world's most powerful brands are never accidental. They grow out of long-term strategies based on superior insight into brand dynamics: where the brand lives, who it affects and how it affects them, its inherent strengths and weaknesses, barriers and opportunities. Grounded with intelligence and driven by leadership's commitment, the optimal Brand Strategy is a finely tuned, precision instrument that guides all expressions of the brand.

The meaning of brands

Brands are a means of differentiating a company’s products and services from those of its competitors. 

There is plenty of evidence to prove that customers will pay a substantial price premium for a good brand and remain loyal to that brand. It is important, therefore, to understand what brands are and why they are important.

Macdonald sums this up nicely in the following quote emphasizing the importance of brands:

“…it is not factories that make profits, but relationships with customers, and it is company and brand names which secure those relationships”

Businesses that invest in and sustain leading brands prosper whereas those that fail are left to fight for the lower profits available in commodity markets.
Chief function is bringing buyers and sellers together and assisting in negociation. They do not carry inventory, provide financing, or assume risk. (Real State or Insurance brokers.)
[[How to Write a Business Plan|http://tiddlyarticles.blogspot.com/2009/04/market-analysis-from-wikipedia-free.html]]
Interesting case study about social responsibility, its benefits and what companies should do to get on board.

Agree that is the company as a whole that needs to get involve in this transition to embrace CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). 

The alternatives that your work offers to includes a complete restructure of the core of the goals and objectives of the organization, such as the creation of a new Mission Statement, therefore being part of the employee's guiding 'invisible hand'.

You work offers as well to modify the hierarchy of operation priorities, integrating CSR high up in the executive decision making, as part of modifications directed from a new marketing strategy.

This top to bottom restructuring strategy has its risks factors, as you well note on your work. But those 'side effects' (the risk factors, such as employee absorption of the idea and the difficulty of measuring success related to this new policy) can be lesser than the overall, long term benefits.

But what happen with a currently successful company, that its been growing exponentially, let's say, for decades now, with steady profits, major gains in market share, with an enormous brand recognition, like many rapid growing companies - like Apple - or others in many developing countries  - like India's Tata Motors -, that saw a rapid success not looking at social responsibility as a factor? How do we get them involve in this CSR strategy?

I don't imagine those companies very willing to modify their Mission Statements, Value Statements and changing the course of managerial and commercial actions that gave them so much profit and success for so long, and modifying their production processes to embrace with a magnificent policy but that's hard to reflect in the bottom line.

Unless there's consumer's pressure, I see the reality of others priorities hitting harder than CSR with the actual globalize competition and other current macroenvironmental conditions.
To experiment with cause and effect relationships.
How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?
A level of intermediaries that performs some work in bringing the product and its ownership closer to the final buyer.
To close a sell remember:
- Be sure your prospect understand what you say.
- Always present a complete story to ensure understanding.
- Tailor your close to each prospect. 80 percent of our customers will respond to a standard close. It is the other 20 percent of customers that you needs to prepare for. Prepare to give the expert customer all facts requested, to give the egotistical customer prise, to lead the indecisive customer, and to slow down for a slow thinker.
- Before you close, attempt a trial close (TrialClose).
- After asking for the order, be silent.
- Set high goals for yourself, and develop a personl commitment to reach your goals.
- Develop and maintain a positive, confident, and enthusiastic attitude toward yourself, your products, your prospects, and your trial close. 
Buyer discomfort caused by post purchase conflict.
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PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
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TertiaryPale: #eee
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Communications media impact more than the reach of messages. They impact content and customs; for example, Thomas Edison had to discover that hello was the least ambiguous greeting by voice over a distance; previous greetings such as hail tended to be garbled in the transmission. Similarly, the terseness of e-mail and chat rooms produced the need for the emoticon.

Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mail, Internet forums). On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication (television, cinema, radio, newspaper, magazines).

The adoption of a dominant communication medium is important enough that historians have folded civilization into "ages" according to the medium most widely used. A book titled "Five Epochs of Civilization" by William McGaughey (Thistlerose, 2000) divides history into the following stages: Ideographic writing produced the first civilization; alphabetic writing, the second; printing, the third; electronic recording and broadcasting, the fourth; and computer communication, the fifth. The media effects what people think about themselves and how they perceive people as well. What we think about self image and what others should look like comes from the media.

While it could be argued that these "Epochs" are just a historian's construction, digital and computer communication shows concrete evidence of changing the way humans organize. The latest trend in communication, termed smartmobbing, involves ad-hoc organization through mobile devices, allowing for effective many-to-many communication and social networking.
The buying behaviour of consumers, individuals who buy goods and services for their own use or consumption. 
All individuals in a particular geographic region who are old enough to have their own money and to choose how to spend it.
The //cultural environment// is made up of institutions and forces that affect a society's values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviours.

The environment shows long-term trends towards a "we society", a lessening trust of institutions, increasing patriotism, and greater appreciation for nature.
The set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions.
Is the value of the entire stream of purchases that the customer would make over a lifetime of patronage.
<html><P>In marketing, customer is related to the market.</P>
<P><A href="undefined">|W</A>.&nbsp;A customer, also client, buyer or purchaser is the buyer or user of the paid products of an individual or organization, mostly called the supplier or seller. This is typically through purchasing or renting goods or services.</P>
<P>The word derives from "custom," meaning "habit"; a customer was someone who frequented a particular shop, who made it a habit to purchase goods of the sort the shop sold there rather than elsewhere, and with whom the shopkeeper had to maintain a relationship to keep his or her "custom," meaning expected purchases in the future.</P>
<DT><STRONG>Customer Delivered Value</STRONG></DT>The difference between total customer value, or the value a customer places on a product, and the total customer cost, or the cost to the customer – in money and effort - of making the purchase; customers will usually buy from the firm which they believe offers maximum delivered value.<br><br>
Source: Monash University. "Customer." Business and Economics Dictionary. 2009. <A href="http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/">http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/</A> 22 Apr. 2009. 

The party who is the target from a marketing campaign and marketing strategy. The core in the Marketing Mix.

Customer Fulfilment:
the delivery of a product to the customer who has placed an order; the fulfilment may also entail the collection of payment, the provision of product information and installation. 

[[American Customer Satisfaction Index|http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord&uid=1996-01940-001]]

[[Customer Satisfaction|http://mktsci.journal.informs.org/cgi/content/abstract/16/2/129]]
There's three types of customer markets:

* Consumer
* Business
* Government
Or [[CRM]], is the building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior [[value]] and satisfaction.

Trying to answer the question about how Apple will tackle competition present various challenges. First, understanding the current market, the macro environment, natural environment and other external factors that affect demand is a key factor.

As we know, one of the main problems for Apple is that advancing technology is fueling more competition in an already crowded market. There are hundreds of products and brands that aim to do the same, many with very little variations.

Apple is facing the considerable pressure of maintaining the leadership on a fast pace environment. 

Its most serious competitor, Microsoft,  wants its upcoming Zune HD to go head to head with the iPod Touch. Is that really plausible*?

[*Source: Microsoft White Paper, M (2009).Press Release Zune HD. The New Microsoft Zune HD. 1, 2.] 

The Zune HD portable media player, recently announced, will feature an HD Radio tuner and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) touch screen. It will use flash memory and a version of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. It will feature an HDMI connection for streaming video to HDTVs, Wi-Fi connectivity, HD video support, and a built-in accelerometer.

On the other hand, iTunes, the smart service that placed Apple at the top is as well being challenged with similar services, but this time, with mobile versions, like the 'Ovi Store', from Nokia*.

[*Source: Nokia, N (2009). Seminar CES Announcement. Nokia Development. Nokia's New Products, The Ovi Store. 1, 4.]

Nokia estimates that 50 million users worldwide can access the Ovi Store in more than 100 countries, but the number of handsets that can jump on to the Ovi Store and stock up on apps is what stands out: more than 50 and counting. Whether you’re on a Nokia 5800 XpressMusic or a crumbly old Nokia 6670, you can access the Ovi Store and fill up on the best apps available without having to head out into the wild west of the net.

With this market environment, another question arises; How long can Apple stay fresh?

We can elaborate some alternatives, one is the strong development of the "Apple apps".

The company came up with one of the most revolutionary software applications ever designed for a portable gadget.

The Apple apps, are small complete software programs that can be purchased directly from the iTunes on the iPod Touch and in few seconds the little program is up and running.

There's almost 4,000 of this applications, from video games to individually personalized radio stations. The big revolution here though is not the applications itself. Is the democratization of creativity. 

These applications are not creations of Apple. But from third party programming companies and individual programmers that can sell their applications on Apple iTunes. These idea increased the gap enormously from the leader and their followers.

This ideas were created through a deep and hard marketing analysis on the consumer market. The results of these search marketing activities indicated that the customer wanted to participate in the development of the final product. And Apple was able to offer and deliver that*.

[*Source: Forrester Research Inc.  "Apple and mobile Technological Advances: The democratization of technology"; Analysis research, Jan/2009. Forrester Research -Copyright 2009.]

This types of ideas, called 'open source' ideas will continue positioning this innovative company on top in the future, as long the company keeps listening to its customers, many who are, in fact, its fans.

The technological environment, and the market desire for innovation put pressure on the company, so "open source" software application, allowing third parties to participate en technological solutions on the development of a new generation of the iPod that include new capabilities that respond to the feedback of this programmers (video cameras and high def recorders are ideas on the table) is an answer to this marketing question . The advantages: 

1- is very cost effective, the model of offering participation on new software development on a "open source" policy is inexpensive since royalties fall under the policies of Creative Commons; 
2- is already proven. The Apple apps that already exist available are very popular. One billion of downloads all over the world already proves is popularity.

Answer number 2: 
Another idea is to open the iTunes store service to third party providers.

Steve Jobs decided to write an open letter in response to critics who say Apple should open iTunes up for use by other music players and open the iPod up so it can play protected music from stores other than iTunes. In his open letter, Jobs says the finger shouldn't be pointed at Apple. Instead, the finger should be pointed at music companies, which demand Apple lock down the devices the music can play on*.

Source: Steve Jobs, S (2008).Open Letter about iTunes royalties. Apple Annual Trade Show. 1, 2. 

This position shows a lack of understanding on what the market look for. The music industry is seen its profits reduced because the same idea, not being able to understand how fast technology advance and how fast technology is adopted. Early adopters cycle is now counted in weeks, and not in quarters as many companies still think.

Apple should let other iTunes music be compatible with other MP3 players. That's a real marketing and business answer. Apple should work with its competitors and allow them to use iTunes , this, instead of diminish the iPod sales, will boost it itunes market (particularly Microsoft core market), boosting at the same time, its profits.

Answer number 3: (I don't have one)

Ok group, here some elaboration on an couple of alternatives for Apple to keeps beating competition. I'd really appreciate more elaboration on the topic and some discussion on a couple of more alternatives. (we don't have much time now).


thanks you all

Go team!

What Apple need to keep surpassing the competition?
We recently saw the introduction of the multimedia entertainment centre (and cell phone) Palm Pre. Is been named as the iPhone killer, and in fact, its reviews on the media (branding awareness P.318) are excellent. So, as we see, threats in this competitive market comes almost every week. So, what's necessary to continually being the leader the market?

Course of Actions

Restructuring the Marketing Strategy
Is important to reestablish the iPod Touch product as the most flexible music player ever built. Is needed to modify the product and reestablish the marketing mix (Developing the Marketing Mix P. 67) with a lower price tag to expand the market share, so it can be attractive to newcomers, (Demographic Segmentation P.251).and open the possibility to broaden the market, but no so much or it would risk the brand (Managing Brands P.318).

A sound strategic planning that re define a more customer oriented product structure (chapter 2, P. 69) on its attached services -particularly on its software management -iPhone & iPod Touch apps, is needed-. This openness call for allowing other hardware makers to interact with the product and some of its services, such as iTunes (the media online -mobile- store), as we see as requirement on the customer feedback on (Customer Oriented Marketing P.104).

The marketing mix of the iPhone & iPod Touch will include the redesign of the new version of the product, a bigger screen for better video display, and a better text image to accommodate it as a pocket e-reader gadget (dozens of apps already transform the product into a eBook. Therefore, an co branded alliance is needed with a major media publisher (Barnes and Noble? Pinguin? Random House?) to offer eBooks  a low prices.

These new iPhone & iPod Touch will already had an array of software applications 'apps' by default that will show the GPS, mapping, satellite network communication and seamless cellphone network switching to enlighten early adopters of these new products, itscapabilities of video, movies will need to be enhanced to allow display of new formats such as Microsoft Silverlight and the long missed Adobe Flash player capability to enhance internet browsing and video media displaying.

Its camera will need to be enhanced. We already know how popular embedded camera is on the fan base of the product, but is been rapidly outdone by some media players offering integrated cameras with much more resolution. Many third party apps are eager to offer photo enhancers and photo retouching. This will allow Apple to gets those customer closer.

The event launch of both products iPhone and iPod Touch need to be amalgamated into a great big public relations event, with major endorsements of entertainment personalities.

The company doesn't have to loose the main purpose of the product (media player). With many apps being integrated to the iPod Touch many customers could feel confuse about what the product really is.
Is important to redefine exactly what the product is (What is a Product P. 294) and communicate (promotion P. 68) the message to the customers.

1. Increase investment on promoting Apple app. (I would be careful here. Apple is one of the companies that already spend the most percentage on advertising). Focus on offering free or low- priced applications and outstanding experience. (Promotion of 4’Ps of the Mkt Mix P.67; Creating Customer Loyalty P.25; and Goods, Services and Experiences P.294)

2. Encourage more download in order to maintain and increase marketing share. (Growing Share of Customer -I believe is called "Market Share Expansion" P.25) 

3. Work with industry leaders and lay down blueprints of future mobile app. Aim to create the industry standard and strengthen Apple’s position as an industry leader. (Technological environment (Macro) P.143 and Competitors Force (Micro) P.129) (Excellent idea! Actually Google and Research in Motion (the Canadian company that makes the BlackBerry, came up with its own verision of apps, so is a great idea offering interchangeability of apps to the customers. 

4. Provide better support and create friendlier environment to app developers. Encourage independent, individual and start-up developers. (Technological environment (Macro) P.143 and Suppliers Factor (Micro) P.130) -Great, there's complains from developers that the evaluation and compliance process in Apple with regards third party apps isn't friendly at all.) Many apps are rejected with no explanation.

5. Maintain free/low-pricing policy on consumer end and lower company’s short term profit expectation. (Price of 4’Ps of the Mkt Mix P.67)

*6. Consider the possibility of opening up itunes and make the Apple app compatible with other mobile devices in the future. (Place of 4’Ps of the Mkt Mix P.67)
*This is a major change in Apple (they actually, for some reason) don't want to do it -> I'd place this point as a umber one and I'd explain how Apple will actually benefit by doing this.
Hi, today is <<today>>
Today //demographic environment// shows a changing age structure, shifting family profiles, geographic population shifts, a better educated and more white-collar population, and increasing diversity. 
the study of the human populations in terms of its size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation and other statistics.
Marketing research to better describe marketing problems, situations, or markets, such us the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers who buy the product.
Beyond evaluating current businesses, designing the business portfolio involves finding businesses and products the company should consider in the future.

Companies need growth if they are to compete more effectively, satisfy their stakeholders, and attract talent.

[[Marketing]] has the main responsibility for achieving profitable growth for the company. Marketing must identify, evaluate and select market opportunities and lay down strategies for capturing them. One useful device for identifying growth opportunities is the product-market expansion grid.

|.|!Existing products|!New products|
|!Existing markets|Market penetration|Product development|
|!New markets|Market Development|Diversification|
A marketing channel (distribution channel) that has no intermediary levels.
Direct communications with carefully targeted customers (consumers or businesses) that request an immediate, measurable response and cultivate lasting customer relationships. 
1. (economic definition) A study of how factors of production are priced in the market place, i.e., the de-termination of rents, wages, interest, and profits.
2. (marketing definition) The [[marketing]] and carrying of [[products]] to [[consumers]].
3. (business definition) The extent of market coverage.

Source: Powered by the American Marketing Association | Copyright © 2009 MarketingPower, Inc.
[[Marketing Power|http://www.marketingpower.com]]
A set of independent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or compsumption by the consumer or business user.
Developments such as the North American Free Trade Agreement mean that many large wholesalers are now going global. Geographic expansion will require that distributors learn how to compete effectively over wider and more diverse areas.

As more manufacturers attempt to control their market share by owning the intermediaries that bring their goods to market, consolidation will significantly reduce the number of wholesaling firms. Surviving wholesalers will grow larger, primarily to acquisition, merger, and geographic expansion.     
|''Description:''|Lite and extensible Wysiwyg editor for TiddlyWiki.|
|''Date:''|Dec 21,2007|
|''Author:''|Pascal Collin|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|License]]|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 2.0; InternetExplorer 6.0|
*On the plugin [[homepage|http://visualtw.ouvaton.org/VisualTW.html]], see [[WysiwygDemo]] and use the {{{write}}} button.
#import the plugin,
#save and reload,
#use the <<toolbar easyEdit>> button in the tiddler's toolbar (in default ViewTemplate) or add {{{easyEdit}}} command in your own toolbar.
! Useful Addons
*[[HTMLFormattingPlugin|http://www.tiddlytools.com/#HTMLFormattingPlugin]] to embed wiki syntax in html tiddlers.<br>//__Tips__ : When this plugin is installed, you can use anchor syntax to link tiddlers in wysiwyg mode (example : #example). Anchors are converted back and from wiki syntax when editing.//
*[[TaggedTemplateTweak|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#TaggedTemplateTweak]] to use alternative ViewTemplate/EditTemplate for tiddler's tagged with specific tag values.
|Buttons in the toolbar (empty = all).<br>//Example : bold,underline,separator,forecolor//<br>The buttons will appear in this order.| <<option txtEasyEditorButtons>>|
|EasyEditor default height | <<option txtEasyEditorHeight>>|
|Stylesheet applied to the edited richtext |[[EasyEditDocStyleSheet]]|
|Template called by the {{{write}}} button |[[EasyEditTemplate]]|
!How to extend EasyEditor
*To add your own buttons, add some code like the following in a systemConfig tagged tiddler (//use the prompt attribute only if there is a parameter//) :
**{{{EditorToolbar.buttons.heading = {label:"H", toolTip : "Set heading level", prompt: "Enter heading level"};}}} 
**{{{EditorToolbar.buttonsList +=",heading";}}}
*To get the list of all possible commands, see the documentation of the [[Gecko built-in rich text editor|http://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Midas]] or the [[IE command identifiers|http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms533049.aspx]].
*To go further in customization, see [[Link button|EasyEditPlugin-LinkButton]] as an example.


var geckoEditor={};
var IEeditor={};

config.options.txtEasyEditorHeight = config.options.txtEasyEditorHeight ? config.options.txtEasyEditorHeight : "500px";
config.options.txtEasyEditorButtons = config.options.txtEasyEditorButtons ? config.options.txtEasyEditorButtons : "";

// TW2.1.x compatibility
config.browser.isGecko = config.browser.isGecko ? config.browser.isGecko : (config.userAgent.indexOf("gecko") != -1); 
config.macros.annotations = config.macros.annotations ? config.macros.annotations : {handler : function() {}}


config.macros.easyEdit = {
	handler : function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var field = params[0];
		var height = params[1] ? params[1] : config.options.txtEasyEditorHeight;
		var editor = field ? new easyEditor(tiddler,field,place,height) : null;
	gather: function(element){
		var iframes = element.getElementsByTagName("iframe");
		if (iframes.length!=1) return null
		var text = "<html>"+iframes[0].contentWindow.document.body.innerHTML+"</html>";
		text = config.browser.isGecko ? geckoEditor.postProcessor(text) : (config.browser.isIE ? IEeditor.postProcessor(text) : text);
		return text;


function easyEditor(tiddler,field,place,height) {
	this.tiddler = tiddler;
	this.field = field;
	this.browser = config.browser.isGecko ? geckoEditor : (config.browser.isIE ? IEeditor : null);
	this.wrapper = createTiddlyElement(place,"div",null,"easyEditor");
	this.iframe = createTiddlyElement(null,"iframe");

easyEditor.prototype.onload = function(){
	this.editor = this.iframe.contentWindow;
	this.doc = this.editor.document;
	if (!this.browser.isDocReady(this.doc)) return null;
	if (!this.tiddler.isReadOnly() && this.doc.designMode.toLowerCase()!="on") {
		this.doc.designMode = "on";
		if (this.browser.reloadOnDesignMode) return false;	// IE fire readystatechange after designMode change
	var internalCSS = store.getTiddlerText("EasyEditDocStyleSheet");

	var barElement=createTiddlyElement(null,"div",null,"easyEditorToolBar");
	this.toolbar = new EditorToolbar(this.doc,barElement,this.editor);


easyEditor.SimplePreProcessoror = function(text) {
	var re = /^<html>(.*)<\/html>$/m;
	var htmlValue = re.exec(text);
	var value = (htmlValue && (htmlValue.length>0)) ? htmlValue[1] : text;
	return value;

easyEditor.prototype.scheduleButtonsRefresh=function() { //doesn't refresh buttons state when rough typing
	if (this.nextUpdate) window.clearTimeout(this.nextUpdate);
	this.nextUpdate = window.setTimeout(contextualCallback(this.toolbar,EditorToolbar.onUpdateButton),easyEditor.buttonDelay);

easyEditor.buttonDelay = 200;


function EditorToolbar(target,parent,window){
	this.target = target;
	var row = createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(parent,"table"),"tbody"),"tr");
	var buttons = (config.options.txtEasyEditorButtons ? config.options.txtEasyEditorButtons : EditorToolbar.buttonsList).split(",");
	for(var cpt = 0; cpt < buttons.length; cpt++){
		var b = buttons[cpt];
		var button = EditorToolbar.buttons[b];
		if (button) {
			if (button.separator)
			else {
				var cell=createTiddlyElement(row,"td",null,b+"Button");
				if (button.onCreate) button.onCreate.call(this, cell, b);
				else EditorToolbar.createButton.call(this, cell, b);

EditorToolbar.createButton = function(place,name){
	this.elements[name] = createTiddlyButton(place,EditorToolbar.buttons[name].label,EditorToolbar.buttons[name].toolTip,contextualCallback(this,EditorToolbar.onCommand(name)),"button");

EditorToolbar.onCommand = function(name){
	var button = EditorToolbar.buttons[name];
	return function(){
		var parameter = false;
		if (button.prompt) {
			var parameter = this.target.queryCommandValue(name);
			parameter = prompt(button.prompt,parameter);
		if (parameter != null) {
			this.target.execCommand(name, false, parameter);
		return false;

EditorToolbar.getCommandState = function(target,name){
	try {return target.queryCommandState(name)}
	catch(e){return false}

EditorToolbar.onRefreshButton = function (name){
	if (EditorToolbar.getCommandState(this.target,name)) addClass(this.elements[name].parentNode,"buttonON");
	else removeClass(this.elements[name].parentNode,"buttonON");

EditorToolbar.onUpdateButton = function(){
	for (b in this.elements) 
		if (EditorToolbar.buttons[b].onRefresh) EditorToolbar.buttons[b].onRefresh.call(this,b);
		else EditorToolbar.onRefreshButton.call(this,b);

EditorToolbar.buttons = {
	separator : {separator : true},
	bold : {label:"B", toolTip : "Bold"},
	italic : {label:"I", toolTip : "Italic"},
	underline : {label:"U", toolTip : "Underline"},
	strikethrough : {label:"S", toolTip : "Strikethrough"},
	insertunorderedlist : {label:"\u25CF", toolTip : "Unordered list"},
	insertorderedlist : {label:"1.", toolTip : "Ordered list"},
	justifyleft : {label:"[\u2261", toolTip : "Align left"},
	justifyright : {label:"\u2261]", toolTip : "Align right"},
	justifycenter : {label:"\u2261", toolTip : "Align center"},
	justifyfull : {label:"[\u2261]", toolTip : "Justify"},
	removeformat : {label:"\u00F8", toolTip : "Remove format"},
	fontsize : {label:"\u00B1", toolTip : "Set font size", prompt: "Enter font size"},
	forecolor : {label:"C", toolTip : "Set font color", prompt: "Enter font color"},
	fontname : {label:"F", toolTip : "Set font name", prompt: "Enter font name"},
	heading : {label:"H", toolTip : "Set heading level", prompt: "Enter heading level (example : h1, h2, ...)"},
	indent : {label:"\u2192[", toolTip : "Indent paragraph"},
	outdent : {label:"[\u2190", toolTip : "Outdent paragraph"},
	inserthorizontalrule : {label:"\u2014", toolTip : "Insert an horizontal rule"},
	insertimage : {label:"\u263C", toolTip : "Insert image", prompt: "Enter image url"}

EditorToolbar.buttonsList = "bold,italic,underline,strikethrough,separator,increasefontsize,decreasefontsize,fontsize,forecolor,fontname,separator,removeformat,separator,insertparagraph,insertunorderedlist,insertorderedlist,separator,justifyleft,justifyright,justifycenter,justifyfull,indent,outdent,separator,heading,separator,inserthorizontalrule,insertimage";

if (config.browser.isGecko) {
	EditorToolbar.buttons.increasefontsize = {onCreate : EditorToolbar.createButton, label:"A", toolTip : "Increase font size"};
	EditorToolbar.buttons.decreasefontsize = {onCreate : EditorToolbar.createButton, label:"A", toolTip : "Decrease font size"};
	EditorToolbar.buttons.insertparagraph = {label:"P", toolTip : "Format as paragraph"};


geckoEditor.setupFrame = function(iframe,height,callback) {
	iframe.setAttribute("style","width: 100%; height:" + height);

geckoEditor.plugEvents = function(doc,onchange){
	doc.addEventListener("keyup", onchange, true);
	doc.addEventListener("keydown", onchange, true);
	doc.addEventListener("click", onchange, true);

geckoEditor.postProcessor = function(text){return text};

geckoEditor.preProcessor = function(text){return easyEditor.SimplePreProcessoror(text)}

geckoEditor.isDocReady = function() {return true;}


geckoEditor.initContent = function(doc,content){
	if (content) doc.execCommand("insertHTML",false,geckoEditor.preProcessor(content));

IEeditor.setupFrame = function(iframe,height,callback) {
	iframe.width="99%";  //IE displays the iframe at the bottom if 100%. CSS layout problem ? I don't know. To be studied...

IEeditor.plugEvents = function(doc,onchange){
	doc.attachEvent("onkeyup", onchange);
	doc.attachEvent("onkeydown", onchange);
	doc.attachEvent("onclick", onchange);

IEeditor.isDocReady = function(doc){
	if (doc.readyState!="complete") return false;
	if (!doc.body) return false;
	return (doc && doc.getElementsByTagName && doc.getElementsByTagName("head") && doc.getElementsByTagName("head").length>0);

IEeditor.postProcessor = function(text){return text};

IEeditor.preProcessor = function(text){return easyEditor.SimplePreProcessoror(text)}


IEeditor.initContent = function(doc,content){
	if (content) doc.body.innerHTML=IEeditor.preProcessor(content);
function contextualCallback(obj,func){
    return function(){return func.call(obj)}
Story.prototype.previousGatherSaveEasyEdit = Story.prototype.previousGatherSaveEasyEdit ? Story.prototype.previousGatherSaveEasyEdit : Story.prototype.gatherSaveFields; // to avoid looping if this line is called several times
Story.prototype.gatherSaveFields = function(e,fields){
	if(e && e.getAttribute) {
		var f = e.getAttribute("easyEdit");
			var newVal = config.macros.easyEdit.gather(e);
			if (newVal) fields[f] = newVal;
		this.previousGatherSaveEasyEdit(e, fields);

	text: "write",
	tooltip: "Edit this tiddler in wysiwyg mode",
	readOnlyText: "view",
	readOnlyTooltip: "View the source of this tiddler",
	handler : function(event,src,title) {
		var tiddlerElem = document.getElementById(story.idPrefix + title);
		var fields = tiddlerElem.getAttribute("tiddlyFields");
		return false;

config.shadowTiddlers.ViewTemplate = config.shadowTiddlers.ViewTemplate.replace(/\+editTiddler/,"+editTiddler easyEdit");

config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditTemplate = config.shadowTiddlers.EditTemplate.replace(/macro='edit text'/,"macro='easyEdit text'");

config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet = "/*{{{*/\n";
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar {font-size:0.8em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".editor iframe {border:1px solid #DDD}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar td{border:1px solid #888; padding:2px 1px 2px 1px; vertical-align:middle}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar td.separator{border:0}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .button{border:0;color:#444}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .buttonON{background-color:#EEE}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar {margin:0.25em 0}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .boldButton {font-weight:bold}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .italicButton .button {font-style:italic;padding-right:0.65em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .underlineButton .button {text-decoration:underline}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .strikeButton .button {text-decoration:line-through}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .unorderedListButton {margin-left:0.7em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .justifyleftButton .button {padding-left:0.1em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .justifyrightButton .button {padding-right:0.1em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .justifyfullButton .button, .easyEditorToolBar .indentButton .button, .easyEditorToolBar .outdentButton .button {padding-left:0.1em;padding-right:0.1em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .increasefontsizeButton .button {padding-left:0.15em;padding-right:0.15em; font-size:1.3em; line-height:0.75em}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .decreasefontsizeButton .button {padding-left:0.4em;padding-right:0.4em; font-size:0.8em;}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .forecolorButton .button {color:red;}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += ".easyEditorToolBar .fontnameButton .button {font-family:serif}\n" ;
config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet +="/*}}}*/";

store.addNotification("EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet", refreshStyles); 

config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditDocStyleSheet = "/*{{{*/\n \n/*}}}*/";
if (config.annotations) config.annotations.EasyEditDocStyleSheet = "This stylesheet is applied when editing a text with the wysiwyg easyEditor";

!Link button add-on
EditorToolbar.createLinkButton = function(place,name) {
	this.elements[name] = createTiddlyButton(place,EditorToolbar.buttons[name].label,EditorToolbar.buttons[name].toolTip,contextualCallback(this,EditorToolbar.onInputLink()),"button");

EditorToolbar.onInputLink = function() {
	return function(){
		var browser = config.browser.isGecko ? geckoEditor : (config.browser.isIE ? IEeditor : null);
		var value = browser ? browser.getLink(this.target) : "";
		value = prompt(EditorToolbar.buttons["createlink"].prompt,value);
		if (value) browser.doLink(this.target,value);
		else if (value=="") this.target.execCommand("unlink", false, value);
		return false;

EditorToolbar.buttonsList += ",separator,createlink";

EditorToolbar.buttons.createlink = {onCreate : EditorToolbar.createLinkButton, label:"L", toolTip : "Set link", prompt: "Enter link url"};

	var range=doc.defaultView.getSelection().getRangeAt(0);
	var container = range.commonAncestorContainer;
	var node = (container.nodeType==3) ? container.parentNode : range.startContainer.childNodes[range.startOffset];
	if (node && node.tagName=="A") {
		var r=doc.createRange();
		return (node.getAttribute("tiddler") ? "#"+node.getAttribute("tiddler") : node.href);
	else return (container.nodeType==3 ? "#"+container.textContent.substr(range.startOffset, range.endOffset-range.startOffset).replace(/ $/,"") : "");

geckoEditor.doLink=function(doc,link){ // store tiddler in a temporary attribute to avoid url encoding of tiddler's name
	var pin = "href"+Math.random().toString().substr(3);
	doc.execCommand("createlink", false, pin);
	var isTiddler=(link.charAt(0)=="#");
	var node = doc.defaultView.getSelection().getRangeAt(0).commonAncestorContainer;
	var links= (node.nodeType!=3) ? node.getElementsByTagName("a") : [node.parentNode];
	for (var cpt=0;cpt<links.length;cpt++) 
			if (links[cpt].href==pin){
				links[cpt].href=isTiddler ? "javascript:;" : link; 
				links[cpt].setAttribute("tiddler",isTiddler ? link.substr(1) : "");

geckoEditor.beforeLinkPostProcessor = geckoEditor.beforelinkPostProcessor ? geckoEditor.beforelinkPostProcessor : geckoEditor.postProcessor;
geckoEditor.postProcessor = function(text){
	return geckoEditor.beforeLinkPostProcessor(text).replace(/<a tiddler="([^"]*)" href="javascript:;">(.*?)(?:<\/a>)/gi,"[[$2|$1]]").replace(/<a tiddler="" href="/gi,'<a href="');

geckoEditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor = geckoEditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor ? geckoEditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor : geckoEditor.preProcessor
geckoEditor.preProcessor = function(text){
	return geckoEditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor(text).replace(/\[\[([^|\]]*)\|([^\]]*)]]/g,'<a tiddler="$2" href="javascript:;">$1</a>');

	var node=doc.selection.createRange().parentElement();
	if (node.tagName=="A") return node.href;
	else return (doc.selection.type=="Text"? "#"+doc.selection.createRange().text.replace(/ $/,"") :"");

	doc.execCommand("createlink", false, link);

IEeditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor = IEeditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor ? IEeditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor : IEeditor.preProcessor
IEeditor.preProcessor = function(text){
	return IEeditor.beforeLinkPreProcessor(text).replace(/\[\[([^|\]]*)\|([^\]]*)]]/g,'<a ref="#$2">$1</a>');

IEeditor.beforeLinkPostProcessor = IEeditor.beforelinkPostProcessor ? IEeditor.beforelinkPostProcessor : IEeditor.postProcessor;
IEeditor.postProcessor = function(text){
	return IEeditor.beforeLinkPostProcessor(text).replace(/<a href="#([^>]*)">([^<]*)<\/a>/gi,"[[$2|$1]]");

IEeditor.beforeLinkInitContent = IEeditor.beforeLinkInitContent ? IEeditor.beforeLinkInitContent : IEeditor.initContent;
IEeditor.initContent = function(doc,content){
	var links=doc.body.getElementsByTagName("A");
	for (var cpt=0; cpt<links.length; cpt++) {
		links[cpt].href=links[cpt].ref; //to avoid IE conversion of relative URLs to absolute

config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditToolBarStyleSheet += "\n/*{{{*/\n.easyEditorToolBar .createlinkButton .button {color:blue;text-decoration:underline;}\n/*}}}*/";

config.shadowTiddlers.EasyEditDocStyleSheet += "\n/*{{{*/\na {color:#0044BB;font-weight:bold}\n/*}}}*/";

A group of nations organized to work toward common goals in the regulation of international [[trade]].
The //economic environment// consists of factors that affect buying power and patterns. The economic environment is characterized by more consumer concern for value and shifting consumer spending patterns. 

Today, squeeze consumers are seeking greater value -the right combination for for good quality and service- at fair price.

The distribution of income is also shifting. The rich have grown richer, the middle class has shrunk, and the poor have remained poor, leading a two-tiered market.

Many companies now tailor their marketing offers to two different markets, the affluent and the less affluent.
A ban on the import of certain goods.
Companies can passively accept the [[marketing environment]] as an uncontrollable element to which the must adapt, avoiding threats and taking advantages of opportunities as they arise. Or they can take and //environmental management perspective//, proactively working to change the environment rather than simply reacting to it.

Whenever possible, companies should try to be proactive rather than reactive.
Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired object from someone (or from a enterprise) by offering something in return.
The act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return.
A trade between two parties that involves:
two things of value.
agreed upon conditions.
time of agreement.
place of agreement.
Government limits on the amount of its foreign exchange with other countries and on its exchange rate against other currencies.
Companies typically start with //indirect exporting//, working through independent international marketing intermediaries. Indirect exporting involves less investment because the firm does not require an overseas sales force or set of contacts. Is also involves less risk. International marketing intermediaries -domestic based export merchants or agents, cooperative organizations, and export management companies- bring know-how and services to the relationship, so the seller normally makes fewer mistakes. 
Features Attributes and Benefits
<a href="http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php" onclick="window.open('http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php?u='+encodeURIComponent(location.href)+'&t='+encodeURIComponent(document.title), 'facebook','toolbar=no,width=700,height=400'); return false;"><img width="16" alt="facebook" src="http://i11.tinypic.com/626e0dk.gif" height="16" /></a>
Fad is a fashion that enters quickly, is adopted with great zeal, peaks early, and declines very quickly.
Is a currently accepted or popular style in a given field. We're all familiar with fashions in clothing and hair styles for example.

Fashions tend to grow slowly, remain popular for a while, then slowly decline. 
Costs that do not vary with production or sales level.
A moderated, small group discussion, typically conducted by marketers during the new product development process. 
1. Define the company [[mission]].
2. Set objectives and goals.
3. Design the [[business portfolio]].
4. Plan strategies.
Direct - Open ended - Rephrasing - Redirect 
1. Acknowledge. Acknowledge the buyer's viewpoint.
2. Identify and Clarify. Identify the problem and clarify the concern.
3. Meet the Objection. How to respond depends on the objection.
4. Use a Trial Close. After meeting an objection the salesperson needs to know whether he has overcome it. Make sure. 
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|Description|clicking an external link opens an IFRAME following the link instead of opening a new tab/window|
This plugin causes clicks on external links to be rendered as inline frames (~IFRAMEs) instead of opening new browser tabs/windows.
Use standard TiddlyWiki external link syntax into your tiddler content. If {{{chkFramedLinks}}} is enabled or the tiddler is tagged with 'framedLinks' (see Configuration), then whenever you click the external link an IFRAME will be dynamically added to the content.  Clicking on the link again removes the IFRAME.  Hold down any modifier (shift, control, or alt) while clicking a link ''temporarily'' bypasses the IFRAME handling and use the standard link handling behavior.
<<option chkFramedLinks>> display inline frames for all external links
&nbsp; &nbsp; {{{<<option chkFramedLinks>>}}}
<<option chkFramedLinksTag>> display inline frames for external links in tiddlers tagged with: <<option txtFramedLinksTag>> 
&nbsp; &nbsp; {{{<<option chkFramedLinksTag>> <<option txtFramedLinksTag>>}}}
IFRAME size (CSS units: %, em, px, cm, in) - width: <<option txtFrameWidth>> height: <<option txtFrameHeight>>
&nbsp; &nbsp; {{{<<option txtFrameWidth>> <<option txtFrameHeight>>}}}
Try these links:
2008.11.14 [1.1.1] fixed handling for external links embedded in //shadow// tiddlers
2008.09.13 [1.1.0] added support to selectively enable embedded IFRAMEs if the containing tiddler is tagged with 'framedLinks'
2007.11.29 [1.0.5] added slider animation and improved CSS handling for IFRAME height/width to maximize display area
2007.11.29 [1.0.0] initial release
version.extensions.FramedLinksPlugin= {major: 1, minor: 1, revision: 1, date: new Date(2008,11,14)};

var co=config.options; // abbreviation
if (co.chkFramedLinks==undefined) co.chkFramedLinks=false;
if (co.chkFramedLinksTag==undefined) co.chkFramedLinksTag=true;
if (co.txtFramedLinksTag==undefined) co.txtFramedLinksTag="framedLinks";
if (co.txtFrameWidth==undefined) co.txtFrameWidth="100%";
if (co.txtFrameHeight==undefined) co.txtFrameHeight="80%";

	var link=this.framedLinks_createExternalLink.apply(this,arguments);
	link.onclick=function(ev) { var e=ev?ev:window.event;
		var co=config.options; // abbreviation
		var here=story.findContainingTiddler(this);
		if (here) var tid=store.getTiddler(here.getAttribute("tiddler"));
		var enabled=co.chkFramedLinks || co.chkFramedLinksTag && tid && tid.isTagged(co.txtFramedLinksTag);
		if (!enabled || e.ctrlKey || e.shiftKey || e.altKey) return; // BYPASS
		var p=this.parentNode; 
		var f=this.nextSibling?this.nextSibling.firstChild:null; // get the IFRAME... maybe...
		var w=co.txtFrameWidth; if (!w || !w.length) w="100%";
		var h=co.txtFrameHeight; if (!h || !h.length) h="80%";
		if (h.indexOf("%")) h=(findWindowHeight()*h.replace(/%/,"")/100)+"px"; // calc height as % of window
		var showing=f && f.nodeName.toUpperCase()=="IFRAME"; // does IFRAME really exist?
		var stretchCell=p.nodeName.toUpperCase()=="TD" && w.indexOf("%")!=-1 && w.replace(/%/,"")>=100;
		if (!showing) { // create an iframe
			link.style.display="block"; // force IFRAME onto line following link
			if (stretchCell) { p.setAttribute("savedWidth",p.style.width); p.style.width="100%"; } // adjust TD so IFRAME stretches
			var wrapper=createTiddlyElement(null,"span"); // wrapper for slider animation
			wrapper.setAttribute("url",this.href); // for async loading of frame after animation completes
			var f=createTiddlyElement(wrapper,"iframe"); // create IFRAME
			f.style.backgroundColor="#fff"; f.style.width=w; f.style.height=h;
			function loadURL(wrapper) { var f=wrapper.firstChild; var url=wrapper.getAttribute("url");
				var d=f.contentDocument?f.contentDocument:(f.contentWindow?f.contentWindow.document:f.document);
				d.open(); d.writeln("<html>connecting to "+url+"</html>"); d.close();
				try { f.src=url; } // if the iframe can't handle the href
				catch(e) { alert(e.description?e.description:e.toString()); } // ... then report the error
			if (!co.chkAnimate) loadURL(wrapper);
			else {
				var morph=new Slider(wrapper,true);
				morph.properties.push({style: 'width', start: 0, end: 100, template: '%0%'});
		} else { // remove iframe
			link.style.display="inline"; // restore link style
			if (stretchCell) p.style.width=p.getAttribute("savedWidth"); // restore previous width of TD
			if (!co.chkAnimate) p.removeChild(f.parentNode);
			else {
				var morph=new Slider(f.parentNode,false,false,"all");
				morph.properties.push({style: 'width', start: 100, end: 0, template: '%0%'});
		e.cancelBubble=true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation(); return false;
	return link;
Why don't all producers simply sell their products directly to consumers? In some cases, is practical for producers to do their own selling, but in many cases, using retailers just makes sense in terms of both, cost and expertise. Retailers can perform many of the channel functions discussed earlier, and in many cases they can perform them better and for less cost than the manufacturer could. 
A company must understand the //global marketing environment// if it intends to do businesses overseas.
The global marketing environment has changed enormously over the past two decades.
No logistics system can both maximize customer service and minimize distribution cost. Maximum customer service implies rapid delivery, large inventories, flexible assortments, liberal return policies, and other services (all of which raise distribution costs).

In contrast, minimum distribution cost implies slower delivery, smaller inventories, and larger shipping lots. all of these represent lower level of overall customer service. The goal of marketing logistics should be to provide a targeted level of customer service at the least cost.
Excerpt.- Green marketing is back, and while some may cavil that it never went away, the quality and quantity of marketing messages has shifted markedly in recent months. By all indications, this time it's no longer a half-hearted, fringe activity.

It's been more than seventeen years since my book, The Green Consumer, was published in the U.S. That took place during the media frenzy of Earth Day 1990, when the world (or at least some of it) awakened to many of the significant environmental challenges we face. We were told by bestselling authors and other self-appointed mavens that the planet was ailing but that doing "simple things" could save the earth, and we felt empowered.

A portfolio-planning matrix that evaluates a company's SBU (Strategy Business Units) in terms of their market growth rate and relative market share. SBUs are classified as stars, cash cows, question marks or dogs.
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|Overrides|'HTML' formatter|
|Description|embed wiki syntax formatting inside of HTML content|
The ~HTMLFormatting plugin allows you to ''mix wiki-style formatting syntax within HTML formatted content'' by extending the action of the standard TiddlyWiki formatting handler.
>see [[HTMLFormattingPluginInfo]]
2009.01.05 [2.4.0] in wikifyTextNodes(), pass w.highlightRegExp and w.tiddler to wikify() so that search term highlighting and tiddler-relative macro processing will work
| see [[HTMLFormattingPluginInfo]] for additional revision details |
2005.06.26 [1.0.0] Initial Release (as code adaptation - pre-dates TiddlyWiki plugin architecture!!)
version.extensions.HTMLFormattingPlugin= {major: 2, minor: 4, revision: 0, date: new Date(2009,1,5)};

// find the formatter for HTML and replace the handler
function initHTMLFormatter()
	for (var i=0; i<config.formatters.length && config.formatters[i].name!="html"; i++);
	if (i<config.formatters.length)	config.formatters[i].handler=function(w) {
		if (!this.lookaheadRegExp)  // fixup for TW2.0.x
			this.lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
		this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
		var lookaheadMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
		if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
			var html=lookaheadMatch[1];
			// if <nowiki> is present, just let browser handle it!
			if (html.indexOf('<nowiki>')!=-1)
			else {
				// if <hide linebreaks> is present, suppress wiki-style literal handling of newlines
				if (html.indexOf('<hide linebreaks>')!=-1) html=html.replace(/\n/g,' ');
				// remove all \r's added by IE textarea and mask newlines and macro brackets
				// create span, let browser parse HTML
				var e=createTiddlyElement(w.output,"span"); e.innerHTML=html;
				// then re-render text nodes as wiki-formatted content
			w.nextMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex; // continue parsing

// wikify #text nodes that remain after HTML content is processed (pre-order recursion)
function wikifyTextNodes(theNode,w)
	function unmask(s) { return s.replace(/\%%\(/g,'<<').replace(/\)\%%/g,'>>').replace(/\\n/g,'\n'); }
	switch (theNode.nodeName.toLowerCase()) {
		case 'style': case 'option': case 'select':
		case 'textarea':
		case '#text':
			var txt=unmask(theNode.nodeValue);
			var newNode=createTiddlyElement(null,"span");
			for (var i=0;i<theNode.childNodes.length;i++)
				wikifyTextNodes(theNode.childNodes.item(i),w); // recursion
Information gathered in internal databases and through marketing intelligence and marketing research usually requires more analysis.

It may include advanced statistical analysis or the application of analytical models that will help marketers make better decisions. In recent years, marketers have paid special attention to the analysis of individual customer data. Many companies have now aquired or developed software and analysis techniques called //customer relationships managements (CRM)//. 
IntegratedMarketing Communications Campaign is a project developed by marketers to improve a company's marketing plan.

[<img[Marketing Plan|http://www.interactivemedia.com.sg/images/marketing_pic_act.jpg]]

As defined by the American Marketing Association is a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time.
Marketers should pay attention to //income distribution// as well as average income.

Income distribution in Canada is disproportionate:

Upper Class: Whose spending patterns are not affected by current economic events adn who are a major market for luxury goods.

Middle Class: Somewhat careful about spending but still can afford good life from time to time.

Working Class: Must stick close to the basics of food, clothing, and shelter, and must try hard to save.

Underclass: Welfare beneficiaries and some retirees. Must count their pennies even when making the most basic purchases. 
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|Description|Insert Javascript executable code directly into your tiddler content.|
''Call directly into TW core utility routines, define new functions, calculate values, add dynamically-generated TiddlyWiki-formatted output'' into tiddler content, or perform any other programmatic actions each time the tiddler is rendered.
>see [[InlineJavascriptPluginInfo]]
2009.04.11 [1.9.5] pass current tiddler object into wrapper code so it can be referenced from within 'onclick' scripts
2009.02.26 [1.9.4] in $(), handle leading '#' on ID for compatibility with JQuery syntax
|please see [[InlineJavascriptPluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2005.11.08 [1.0.0] initial release
version.extensions.InlineJavascriptPlugin= {major: 1, minor: 9, revision: 5, date: new Date(2009,4,11)};

config.formatters.push( {
	name: "inlineJavascript",
	match: "\\<script",
	lookahead: "\\<script(?: src=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: label=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: title=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: key=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?( show)?\\>((?:.|\\n)*?)\\</script\\>",

	handler: function(w) {
		var lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
		lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
		var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
		if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
			var src=lookaheadMatch[1];
			var label=lookaheadMatch[2];
			var tip=lookaheadMatch[3];
			var key=lookaheadMatch[4];
			var show=lookaheadMatch[5];
			var code=lookaheadMatch[6];
			if (src) { // external script library
				var script = document.createElement("script"); script.src = src;
				document.body.appendChild(script); document.body.removeChild(script);
			if (code) { // inline code
				if (show) // display source in tiddler
				if (label) { // create 'onclick' command link
					var link=createTiddlyElement(w.output,"a",null,"tiddlyLinkExisting",wikifyPlainText(label));
					var fixup=code.replace(/document.write\s*\(/gi,'place.bufferedHTML+=(');
					link.code="function _out(place,tiddler){"+fixup+"\n};_out(this,this.tiddler);"
						try{ var r=eval(this.code);
							if(this.bufferedHTML.length || (typeof(r)==="string")&&r.length)
								var s=this.parentNode.insertBefore(document.createElement("span"),this.nextSibling);
							if((typeof(r)==="string")&&r.length) {
								return false;
							} else return r!==undefined?r:false;
						} catch(e){alert(e.description||e.toString());return false;}
					var URIcode='javascript:void(eval(decodeURIComponent(%22(function(){try{';
					URIcode+=encodeURIComponent(encodeURIComponent(code.replace(/\n/g,' ')));
					if (key) link.accessKey=key.substr(0,1); // single character only
				else { // run script immediately
					var fixup=code.replace(/document.write\s*\(/gi,'place.innerHTML+=(');
					var c="function _out(place,tiddler){"+fixup+"\n};_out(w.output,w.tiddler);";
					try	 { var out=eval(c); }
					catch(e) { out=e.description?e.description:e.toString(); }
					if (out && out.length) wikify(out,w.output,w.highlightRegExp,w.tiddler);
			w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;
} )

// // Backward-compatibility for TW2.1.x and earlier
if (typeof(wikifyPlainText)=="undefined") window.wikifyPlainText=function(text,limit,tiddler) {
	if(limit > 0) text = text.substr(0,limit);
	var wikifier = new Wikifier(text,formatter,null,tiddler);
	return wikifier.wikifyPlain();

// // GLOBAL FUNCTION: $(...) -- 'shorthand' convenience syntax for document.getElementById()
if (typeof($)=='undefined') { function $(id) { return document.getElementById(id.replace(/^#/,'')); } }
Integrated MKT communications
Marketing is defined as "the process of planning and executing the conception, [[pricing]], [[promotion]], and [[distribution]] of ideas, goods, and [[services]] to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives".

The [[marketing]] function in an [[organization]] facilitates the exchange process and the development of relationships by carefully examining the needs and wants of consumers, developing a product or service that satisfies these [[needs]], offering it at a certain [[price]], making it available though a particular place of channel of distribution, and developing a program of promotion or communication. These four Ps (product, price, place (distribution), and promotion (marketing communications) are elements of the marketing mix. Tha basic task of marketing is combining these four elements into a marketing pogram to facilitate the potential for exchange with consumers in the marketplace. 
The logistic concept that emphasizes teamwork, both inside the company and among all the channel organizations, to maximize the performance of the entire distribution system. 
According to Wikipedia, Intellectual property is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce, including copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights. Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract "properties" has certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention which is covered by it.

What relates to marketing is its [[copyright]] topic. Primarily because is what companies create and how they protect it in diferent markets. 
When selling to another country, a firm faces various trade restrictions. The most common is the [[tariff]]. the tariff must be designed either to raise revenue or to protect domestic firms. The exporter also may face a [[quota]]. The purpose of the quota is to conserve on foreign exchange and to protect local industry and employment.

And [[embargo]], or boycott, bans an import.

Firms may face [[exchange controls]], which limit the amount on foreign exchange and the exchange rate against other currencies. They also may encounter [[nontariff trade barriers]], such as biases against bids or restrictive product standards. 
Some marketers face special research situations, such as those conducting research in small business, nonprofit, or international situations. Marketing research can be conducted effectively by small businesses and nonprofit organizations with limited budgets.

International marketing researchers follow the same steps as domestic researchers but often face more and different problems. All organizations needs to respond responsibly to major public policy and ethical issues of intrusions on consumer privacy and misuse of research findings.
The company joins with a partner to manufacture or market abroad.

The four types of joint ventures are licensing, contract manufacturing, [[management contracting]], and joint ownership.

Changes in an individual's behaviour arising from experience.
|''Name:''|LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy (previous LoadRemoteFileHijack)|
|''Description:''|When the TiddlyWiki file is located on the web (view over http) the content of [[SiteProxy]] tiddler is added in front of the file url. If [[SiteProxy]] does not exist "/proxy/" is added. |
|''Date:''|mar 17, 2007|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
version.extensions.LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy = {
 major: 1, minor: 1, revision: 0, 
 date: new Date("mar 17, 2007"), 
 source: "http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy"};

if (!window.bidix) window.bidix = {}; // bidix namespace
if (!bidix.core) bidix.core = {};

bidix.core.loadRemoteFile = loadRemoteFile;
loadRemoteFile = function(url,callback,params)
 if ((document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http") && (url.substr(0,4) == "http")){ 
 url = store.getTiddlerText("SiteProxy", "/proxy/") + url;
 return bidix.core.loadRemoteFile(url,callback,params);
More advanced companies try to forge long term partnerships with their channel partners. In managing its channels, a company must convince distributors that they can succeed better by working together as part of a cohesive value delivery system. Many companies are now developing partner relationship managements (PRM) systems to coordinate their whole channel marketing efforts.

The producer must regularly check channel member performance against standards such as sales quotas, average inventory levels, customer delivery time, treatment of damage and lost goods, cooperation in company promotion and training programs, and services to customers. The company should recognize and reward intermediaries who are performing well and providing value to customers. Those who are performing poorly should be assisted or, as last resort, replaced.

Finally, manufacturers need to be sensitive to their dealers. those who treat their dealers poorly risk not only loosing their dealer support, but also causing some legal problems,  
Temporarily pricing products below the list price, and sometimes even below cost, to increase short-run sales.
Consists of larger societal //forces// that affect the entire [[microenvironment]].

The six forces making up he company's macroenvironment include demographic, economic, natural, tecnological, political, and cultural forces.

These forces shape opportunities and pose threats to the company.
[[WelcomeToTiddlyspot]] [[Marketing]] [[Promotion]]
* Production: Make it affordable.
* [[Product]]: Make it the best.
* Selling: Focus on selling.
* [[Marketing]]: Focus on customer needs.
* Societal Marketing: include well-being.
<!-- AddThis Button BEGIN -->
<script type="text/javascript">var addthis_pub="etniko";</script>
<a href="http://www.addthis.com/bookmark.php?v=20" onmouseover="return addthis_open(this, '', '[URL]', '[TITLE]')" onmouseout="addthis_close()" onclick="return addthis_sendto()"><img src="http://s7.addthis.com/static/btn/lg-addthis-en.gif" width="125" height="16" alt="Bookmark and Share" style="border:0"/></a><script type="text/javascript" src="http://s7.addthis.com/js/200/addthis_widget.js"></script>
<!-- AddThis Button END -->

<table style="text-align: left; width: 75%;" border="0"
 cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
      <td><img style="width: 145px; height: 200px;"
      <td style="vertical-align: bottom;">According to the
book "Marketing, An Introduction", by
Armstrong, Korler, Cunningham, and Mitchell, Marketing is a social and
managerial process whereby individuals and groups obtain what they need
and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.<br>
Another definition, by the same authors, "Marketing, and Introduction",
state that marketing is managing profitable customer relationships.
The goal of marketing is to attract new customers by promising superior
value and to keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction.<br><br>
Can be defined as well as:<br>
Attracting new customers by promising and delivering superior value.
Building long-term relationships with customers by delivering continued customer satisfaction.
Creating, building and managing these relationships profitably over time.
[[Advertising]] [[Promotion]] [[customer]]
<html><a href="http://www.marketingscoop.com/marketingstrategy.htm">http://www.marketingscoop.com/marketingstrategy.htm</a></html>
Are suppliers and marketing intermediaries, including retailers, wholesalers, distributors, brokers, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries (these bodies cooperate to create value).
The //marketing information system// consist of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers.
A systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about competitors and developments in the marketing environment.
Firms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute its goods to its customers.
The tasks involve in planning, implementing and controlling the physical flow of materials, final goods, and related information from points of origin to points of consumption to meet customer requirements at a profit.
The four Ps: product, [[price]], place ([[distribution]]) and [[promotion]] (marketing communications). Are elements of the marketing mix. The basic task of marketing is combining these four elements into a marketing program to facilitate the potential for exchange with consumers in the marketplace.
* Analyze current situation
* Analyze marketing opportunities
* Select target markets
* Manage the marketing effort
The systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization.
In collecting primary data, marketing researchers  have a choice of two main research instrument: the //questionnaire// and //mechanical devices//. The questionnaire is by far the most common instrument, whether administered in person, by phone, or online.
 * Provide a guiding philosophy
 * Provide inputs to strategic planners
 * Design strategies to research objectives
 * Measure results
Today’s successful organizations, whether they are large or small, for-profit or not-for-profit; whether they operate only in Canada or internationally, share these things: an understanding of the [[market]] and of the importance of [[marketing]], and a commitment to providing value to their [[customers]]. The goal of marketing is to build and manage profitable, long-lasting, customer relationships. The task of the marketer is to study the market and design programs to attract new customers, while managing relationships with customers by delivering value and satisfaction.

Marketing operates within a dynamic environment, which can quickly make yesterday’s winning strategies obsolete. To be successful today, organizations must be strongly customer focused. They must learn about and understand their customers’ needs, wants, and demands—and they must do it better than their competitors.

In developing a marketing strategy, the organization must first decide who it will serve. It does this by dividing the market into segments of customers, selecting which segments it will serve, and positioning itself against the competition.

Most organizations today follow the marketing concept, the key tenet of which is that every organization must look to the market, listen to the customers, and have an outside-in perspective.
[[Marketing and Introduction's Chapter 2|http://wps.prenhall.com/ca_ph_armstrong_marketing_2/46/11856/3035349.cw/index.html]]
The forces close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers:

*The company
*Marketing intermediaries
Chief Brand and Marketing Officer, Tim Hortons

Mr. William A. Moir joined Tim Hortons Inc. in 1990 as Vice President of Marketing, and was promoted to Executive Vice President of Marketing in 1997. As of May 1, 2008, Mr. Moir was appointed as Chief Brand and Marketing Officer, and as the President of the Tim Horton Children’s Foundation and assumed responsibility for research and development, aligning product research and innovation programs with the Company’s brand and marketing activities. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Moir gained extensive marketing management experience, holding key positions with K-Tel, Shell Oil and Labatt Breweries. He is a director and past Chairman of the Coffee Association of Canada, a director of The Trillium Health Centre Foundation, as well as a member of the Board of Directors of the Tim Horton Children’s Foundation. Mr. Moir holds an Honours Business degree from the University of Manitoba.
The //natural environment// shows three major trends: shortages of certain raw materials, higher pollution levels, and more government intervention in natural resource management.

Environmental concerns create marketing for alert companies.
Leaning the buyer's needs and wants.
Research before you communicate with the buyer.
Questioning, listening and observing are particularly important once you are in contact with the buyer.
<a href="http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php" onclick="window.open('http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php?u='+encodeURIComponent(location.href)+'&t='+encodeURIComponent(document.title), 'facebook','toolbar=no,width=700,height=400'); return false;"><img width="16" alt="facebook" src="http://i11.tinypic.com/626e0dk.gif" height="16" /></a>
[[Advertising]] [[Promotion]] [[Customer]] [[Strategic Planning]]
* Awareness: Become aware of new product.
* Interest: Seek information about product.
* Evaluation: Decide whether trial makes sense.
* Trial: Try product on small scale.
* Adoption: Decide to purchase product.

window.applyPageTemplate_orig_ads = window.applyPageTemplate;

window.applyPageTemplate = function(title) {


  var box = document.getElementById('adsenseBox');
  var bar = document.getElementById('adsenseBar');

  var sidebar = document.getElementById('sidebar');
  var sidebarOptions = document.getElementById('sidebarOptions');
  var displayArea = document.getElementById('displayArea');
  var tiddlerDisplay = document.getElementById('tiddlerDisplay');

  if (false && sidebar && sidebarOptions && box) {
    box.style.display = 'block';
  else if (sidebar && box) {
    box.style.display = 'block';

  if (displayArea && bar) {
    bar.style.display = 'block';

'#adsenseBox { background:#eee; }\n'+
'#adsenseBar { background:#eee; padding-left:1em; }\n'+

Non monetary barriers to foreign products, such as biases against a foreign company's bids or product standards that go against a foreign company's products features.
The gathering of primary data by observing relevant people, actions and situations.
[[Outdoor Ads]] or Out of Home Advertising:

Out-of-home advertising (also referred to as OOH) is essentially all type of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. This is in contrast to broadcast, print, or internet advertising, which may be delivered to viewers out-of-home (e.g. via tradeshow, newsstand, hotel lobby room), but are usually for home or office viewing. Outdoor products are divided among three primary categories: Billboards, street furniture and transit. The most common product in OOH is the billboard. OOH encompasses outdoor advertising but extends to the indoors as well (such as ads in malls).

This is a non-exhaustive list. There are virtually no limits to shape and size of out-of-home advertising media.
<div id='header' class='header' macro='gradient vert #555555 #fff '>
 <div class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></div>
 <span id='topMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></span>

<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
<div id='displayArea'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
|''Description:''|Extends TiddlyWiki options with non encrypted password option.|
|''Date:''|Apr 19, 2007|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.2.0 (Beta 5)|
version.extensions.PasswordOptionPlugin = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 2, 
	date: new Date("Apr 19, 2007"),
	source: 'http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#PasswordOptionPlugin',
	author: 'BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info',
	license: '[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D]]',
	coreVersion: '2.2.0 (Beta 5)'

config.macros.option.passwordCheckboxLabel = "Save this password on this computer";
config.macros.option.passwordInputType = "password"; // password | text
setStylesheet(".pasOptionInput {width: 11em;}\n","passwordInputTypeStyle");

merge(config.macros.option.types, {
	'pas': {
		elementType: "input",
		valueField: "value",
		eventName: "onkeyup",
		className: "pasOptionInput",
		typeValue: config.macros.option.passwordInputType,
		create: function(place,type,opt,className,desc) {
			// password field
			// checkbox linked with this password "save this password on this computer"
			// text savePasswordCheckboxLabel
		onChange: config.macros.option.genericOnChange

merge(config.optionHandlers['chk'], {
	get: function(name) {
		// is there an option linked with this chk ?
		var opt = name.substr(3);
		if (config.options[opt]) 
		return config.options[name] ? "true" : "false";

merge(config.optionHandlers, {
	'pas': {
 		get: function(name) {
			if (config.options["chk"+name]) {
				return encodeCookie(config.options[name].toString());
			} else {
				return "";
		set: function(name,value) {config.options[name] = decodeCookie(value);}

// need to reload options to load passwordOptions

if (!config.options['pasPassword'])
	config.options['pasPassword'] = '';

		pasPassword: "Test password"
Personal presentation by the firm's sales representatives for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships.
Philip W. Schiller
Senior Vice President of Worldwide Product Marketing

Philip Schiller is Apple’s senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing and reports to Apple’s CEO. Schiller is a member of Apple’s Executive Team and is responsible for the company’s Product Marketing, Developer Relations, and Business Marketing programs. Since rejoining Apple in April 1997, Schiller has helped the company return to its role as a technology innovator, delivering breakthrough products such as the iMac, MacBook, Airport, Xserve, Mac OS X, Safari, AppleTV, iPod and iPhone. 

Schiller has over twenty four years of marketing and management experience including seventeen years at Apple in various marketing management positions.  Prior to Apple, Schiller served as Vice President of Product Marketing at Macromedia, Inc. of San Francisco, CA; as Director of Product Marketing at FirePower Systems, Inc. of Menlo Park, CA; as an Information Technology Manager at Nolan, Norton & Company of Lexington, MA; and as a Programmer and Systems Analyst at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA. 

Schiller graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Boston College in 1982.  

[[More about Philip W. Schiller|http://news.google.com/news?um=1&ned=us&hl=en&q=Schiller%2C+Philip+Apple]]
//Political environment// consist of laws, agencies, and groups that influence or limit marketing actions.

Increasing legislation regulating businesses affect the way  products can be marketed. 
- Price
- Product is not needed
- Prospect has an overstock of you or your competitor's products
- Delivery schedules
Selling is not a very complex process; it's just difficult to do consistently. That's why, whether you regard it as an art or a science, the discipline of selling starts with setting a precall objective.

A sales call must moves systematically toward a sale. Often, we are not talking about elaborate planning. Sometimes it only takes a few seconds before acall. But on every occasion it's vital for the sales representative ask, "Why I'm going in here for? What is the result I'm trying to achieve?".
The amount of money exchanged for something of value. Price and Value may differ; price is the transaction amount, whereas value is an opinion or estimate of worth.

Another definition: The amount of money charged for a product or service, or the sum of the values that buyers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service.

[[Wikipedia Price|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price]]

<a href="http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5986/is_200709/ai_n24179052">FindArticles - In the price?</a>
<cite>Investors Chronicle - magazine and web content, September, 2007</cite>
A successful price increase can greatly increase profits. For example, if the company's profit margin is 3% of sales, a 1% price increase will increase profits by 33% if sales volume is unaffected. A major factor in price increases is cost inflation. Rising costs squeeze profit margins and lead companies to pass cost increases along to customers. 

Another factor leading to price increases is over demand: When a company can not supply all that is customers need, it can raise is prices, ration products to customers, or both.
Data or information that is ''gathered directly'' from the subjects of the research.

Interviews, [[focus groups]], observation, surveys, experiments.
The Boston Consulting Group method and other formal methods revolutionized strategic planning. However, such approaches have limitations. They can be difficult, time consuming, and costly to implement. 

... In addition, these approaches focus on classifying //current// businesses but provide little advice for //future// planning.
In marketing, a product or service is anything that can be offered to a [[market]] that might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. In manufacturing, products are purchased as raw materials and sold as finished goods.

Commodities are usually raw materials such as metals and agricultural products, but a commodity can also be anything widely available in the open market. In project management, products are the formal definition of the project deliverables that make up or contribute to delivering the objectives of the project.

In general usage, product may refer to a single item or unit, a group of equivalent products, a grouping of goods or services, or an industrial classification for the goods or services.
See AdvertisingPromotion
Is a planned process to influence public opinion, through sound character and proper performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communication.
One of the most important objectives is identify key messages, target audiences and desired channels of communication.

Research is conducted toi do three things:
1- describe a process, situation or phenomenon
2- explain why something is happening
3- predict what probably will happen
Groups that have an actual or potential interest in or impact on the company's ability to meet their [[objectives]].
A limit on the amount of goods that an importing country will accept in certain product categories to conserve on foreign exchange and to protect local industry and employment.
Marketers need o be good at building relationships with customers, others in the company and external partners. To do this effectively, marketers must understand the mayor environmental forces that surround all of this relationships. A company's [[marketing]] environment consist of the forces outside marketing that affect marketing management's ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers. The marketing environment offers both opportunities and threats. Successful companies know the vital importance of continually watching and adapting the changing environment.
All activities involved in selling goods and services directly to consumers for their personal, non business use.
[[Reverse Ripple]] is a [[Needs Analysis]] technique about asking general quiestions to the prospect first and then the mosre specific ones.
Using the Boston Consulting Group approach, a company classifies all of its SBU (business portfolios including products and brands) according to the //growth share matrix//, which evaluates the company's SBU in therms of their market growth rate and relative market share.

SBUs can be classified as "stars", "cash cows", "question marks", or "dogs".
The SPIN technique include four types of questions in a specific sequence.
Stand for: Situation, Problem, Implication, Need-payoff
SPIN Selling was the originated by Neil Rackham who authored a book of the same name in 1988.

SPIN Selling is based on extensive research by Rackham and his company, Huthwaite. They examined large, complicated sales scenarios. After analysing more than 35,000 sales calls they were able to put to rest a variety of traditional myths about closing sales.

The book has been very successful selling over 150,000 copies.

The original survey showed that in successful sales calls it's the buyer who does most of the talking, which means that the salespeople are asking questions.

Asking questions means that the salesperson is building Rapport with the buyer building Rapport with the buyer which allows the buyer to feel more comfortable talking.

SPIN Selling proposes there are four types of questions, thus SPIN stands for :

    * Situation ( questions )
Current scenario.

    * Problem ( questions )
Problem questions implies the potential buyer have an issue on his/her operation. He/she will give some hints about something that bother him/her. 

    * Implication ( questions )
Diminishing profits. Longer product deliveries, etc.
    * Need-payoff ( questions )
How cost effective  prospect operation is. How's prospect efficiency compares with competition. Prospect will consider overhead cost when purchasing something.

Situation Questions deal with the facts about the buyers existing situation.

Problem Questions ask about the buyer's pain and focus the buyer on this pain while clarifying the problem, before asking implication questions. . These give Implied Needs.

Implication Questions discuss the effects of the problem, before talking about solutions, and develop the seriousness of the problem to increase the buyer's motivation to change.

Need-Payoff Questions get the buyer to tell you about their Explicit Needs and the benefits your solutions offers, rather than forcing you to explain the benefits to the buyer. Getting the buyer to state the benefits has greater impact while sounding a lot less pushy. What these questions do is probe for explicit needs.

The research uncovered the following facts :

The first students trained in the "SPIN" model showed an average of 17% improvement in sales results. (Other models show improvements on sales as well) Is pretty obvious tha rapport is essential in the selling process.

Ref: Source Here: [[www.sellingandpersuasiontechniques.com|http://www.sellingandpersuasiontechniques.com/SPIN-selling.html]]
-Plan and write down what you will say. This helps you organize and concisely present your message.
-Clearly identify yourself and your company.
-State the purpose of your call and briefly outline how the prospect may benefit from the interview.
-Prepare a brief sales message, stressing product benefits over features. Present only enough information to stimulate interest.
-Do not take no for an answer. Be persistent even if there is a negative reaction to the call.
-Ask for an interview so that you can further explain product benefits.
-Phrase your appointment request as a question. Your prospect should be given a choice, such as: "Would be nine a clock Tuesday be good for you?".
The Sales Presentation guide the prospect into the attention, interest, desire, and conviction.
Short-term incentives, usually presented at the point at the point of purchase, designed to encourage the immediate purchase.
A segment of the population selected to represent the population as a whole.
on the Web (selected sites)

<form action="http://www.google.com/cse" id="cse-search-box">
    <input type="hidden" name="cx" value="012816376226779375206:tdhmacaja2y" />
    <input type="hidden" name="ie" value="UTF-8" />
    <input type="text" name="q" size="31" />
    <input type="submit" name="sa" value="Search" />


<script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.google.com/coop/cse/brand?form=cse-search-box&lang=en"></script>

* Segment markets:
- Identify bases for segmentation
- Develop segmentation profiles

* Target segments
- Measure of segment attractiveness
- Select the target segment

* Position for target segments
- Develop positioning for each segment
- Develop appropriate marketing mix
Is generally acepted as an intagible acction in which the marketer will charge for.

Other short definitions include:
Intagible product.
The act or process of buying and selling in a market.
The commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producer to consumer.

[[Services More Profitably|http://www.bnet.com/2439-13056_23-200235.html]][img[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/External.svg/12px-External.svg.png]]
Marketers must consider the total marketing mix when setting prices. If the product is positioned on non-price factors, then decisions about quality, promotion, and distribution will strongly affect price.

If price is a crucial positioning factor, then price will strongly affect decisions made about the other marketing mix elements. But even when featuring price marketers need to remember that customers rarely buy on price alone. Instead, they seek products that give them the best value in terms of benefits received for the price paid. 
Systems that combine surveys of huge consumer panels and electronic monitoring of respondent's purchases and exposure to various marketing activities in an effort to better understand the link among consumer characteristics, attitudes, and purchase behaviour.
Marketing Concepts
The key to smart marketing is to build the right relationships with the right customers.

Companies today recognize that they cannot appeal to all buyers in the marketplace, or at least not to all buyers in the same way. Buyers are too numerous, too widely scattered, and too varied in their needs and buying practices. Moreover, the companies themselves vary widely in their abilities to serve different segments of the market. Instead, they must design strategies to build the right relationships with the right customers. Rather than trying to compete in an entire market, sometimes against superior competitors, each company must identify the parts of the market that it can serve best and most profitably.
Relatively permanent and ordered divisions of a society into groups whose members share similar values, interests and behaviours.
The SalesPerson who understands the full range of the customer's needs is in a much better position to provide a product solution that helps the customer progress more efficiently and effectively toward achieving her organization's strategic goal.
<html>Sets the stage for the rest of the company's planning. Marketing contributes to strategic planning, and the overall plan defines marketing's role in the company. Although formal planning offers a variety of benefits to companies, not all companies use it or use it well. Although many discussions of strategic planning focus on large corporations, small business also can benefit greatly from sound strategic planning.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Strategic planning involves developing a strategy for long-term survival and growth. It consist in four steps: defining company mission, setting objectives and goals, designing a business portfolio, and developing functional plans. </span></html>
A style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression. For example, styles appear in homes (colonial, modern), clothing (formal, casual), and art (realist, surrealist). Once a style is invented, it may last for generations, passing in and out of vogue. A style has a cycle showing several periods of renewed interest.
#header {padding: 0em 0em 0em 0em; background:transparent;	font-family: arial,helvetica; font-size:12px;

.siteTitle {
font-family: 'Trebuchet MS' sans-serif;
font-weight: bold;
font-size: 32px;
color: #E0610C; margin-right:2em;margin-left:0.5em;

#topMenu br {display:none;}
#topMenu a, #topMenu .tiddlyLink, #topMenu .button {margin:0em; color:#666; padding:15px 15px 10px 15px;padding-top:1.6em;border:none; border-right: 1px solid #666;float:left;}
#topMenu {border-left: 1px solid #666;  float:left;margin:0;}
#topMenu a:hover {color:#ccc; background:#3b3b3b;}
A group with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
Managing value added flows of materials, final goods, and related information between suppliers, the company, resellers and final users.

About 15% of the final price of a product is accounted for by shipping and transport alone. Shaving off even a small fraction of these costs can mean substantial savings.
The gathering of primary data by asking people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behaviour.

version.extensions.tagglyTagCloud = {major: 1, minor: 0 , revision: 0, date: new Date(2006,2,4)};
//Created by Clint Checketts, contributions by Jonny Leroy and Eric Shulman

config.macros.tagglyTagCloud = {
 noTags: "No tag cloud created because there are no tags.",
 tooltip: "%1 tiddlers tagged with '%0'"

config.macros.tagglyTagCloud .handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
var tagCloudWrapper = createTiddlyElement(place,"div",null,"tagCloud",null);

var tags = store.getTags();
for (var t=0; t<tags.length; t++) {
 for (var p=0;p<params.length; p++) if (tags[t][0] == params[p]) tags[t][0] = "";

 if(tags.length == 0) 
 //Findout the maximum number of tags
 var mostTags = 0;
 for (var t=0; t<tags.length; t++) if (tags[t][0].length > 0){
 if (tags[t][1] > mostTags) mostTags = tags[t][1];
 //divide the mostTags into 4 segments for the 4 different tagCloud sizes
 var tagSegment = mostTags / 4;

 for (var t=0; t<tags.length; t++) if (tags[t][0].length > 0){
 var tagCloudElement = createTiddlyElement(tagCloudWrapper,"span",null,null,null);
 tagCloudWrapper.appendChild(document.createTextNode(" "));
 var theTag = createTiddlyLink(tagCloudElement,tags[t][0],true);
 theTag.className += " tagCloudtag tagCloud" + (Math.round(tags[t][1]/tagSegment)+1);

// theTag.setAttribute("tag",tags[t][0]);


setStylesheet(".tagCloud span{height: 1.8em;margin: 3px;}.tagCloud1{font-size: 1.2em;}.tagCloud2{font-size: 1.4em;}.tagCloud3{font-size: 1.6em;}.tagCloud4{font-size: 1.8em;}.tagCloud5{font-size: 1.8em;font-weight: bold;}","tagCloudsStyles");
The [[marketer]] should watch for trends in the //technological environment//. They must be aware of new technological development in order to take advantage of them and not be driven out of business by them. Companies that fail to keep up with technological change will miss out on new product and marketing opportunities.
|~ViewToolbar|closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler > fields syncing permalink references easyEdit jump|
|~EditToolbar|+saveTiddler -cancelTiddler deleteTiddler|
The sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production.
Transaction is a trade between two parties that involves at least two things of value, agreed-on conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
The natural environment shows three major trends: shortages of certain raw materials, higher pollution levels, and more government intervention in natural resource management. Environmental concerns create [[marketing]] opportunities for alert companies. 

The marketer should watch for trends in the technological environment.

Marketers need to be aware of new technology developments in order to take advantage of them and not be driven out of business by them. Companies that fail to keep up with technological change will miss out on new [[product]] and marketing opportunities.

Technology is perhaps the most dramatic force shaping the marketing environment.
Trial closing is the process of helping people make a decision that will benefit them. You help people make the decision by asking them to buy.

As successful salespeople know, there are no magic phrases and techniques to use in closing a sale. It is the end result of your presentation. If everything has been done to properly develop a sales presentation, closing the sale is the next step in a logical sequence.
Description: Contains the stuff you need to use Tiddlyspot
Note, you also need UploadPlugin, PasswordOptionPlugin and LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy
from http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info for a complete working Tiddlyspot site.

// edit this if you are migrating sites or retrofitting an existing TW
config.tiddlyspotSiteId = 'mkt';

// make it so you can by default see edit controls via http
config.options.chkHttpReadOnly = false;
window.readOnly = false; // make sure of it (for tw 2.2)
window.showBackstage = true; // show backstage too

// disable autosave in d3
if (window.location.protocol != "file:")
	config.options.chkGTDLazyAutoSave = false;

// tweak shadow tiddlers to add upload button, password entry box etc
with (config.shadowTiddlers) {
	SiteUrl = 'http://'+config.tiddlyspotSiteId+'.tiddlyspot.com';
	SideBarOptions = SideBarOptions.replace(/(<<saveChanges>>)/,"$1<<tiddler TspotSidebar>>");
	OptionsPanel = OptionsPanel.replace(/^/,"<<tiddler TspotOptions>>");
	DefaultTiddlers = DefaultTiddlers.replace(/^/,"[[WelcomeToTiddlyspot]] ");
	MainMenu = MainMenu.replace(/^/,"[[WelcomeToTiddlyspot]] ");

// create some shadow tiddler content

 "This document is a ~TiddlyWiki from tiddlyspot.com.  A ~TiddlyWiki is an electronic notebook that is great for managing todo lists, personal information, and all sorts of things.",
 "@@font-weight:bold;font-size:1.3em;color:#444; //What now?// &nbsp;&nbsp;@@ Before you can save any changes, you need to enter your password in the form below.  Then configure privacy and other site settings at your [[control panel|http://" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ".tiddlyspot.com/controlpanel]] (your control panel username is //" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + "//).",
 "<<tiddler TspotControls>>",
 "See also GettingStarted.",
 "@@font-weight:bold;font-size:1.3em;color:#444; //Working online// &nbsp;&nbsp;@@ You can edit this ~TiddlyWiki right now, and save your changes using the \"save to web\" button in the column on the right.",
 "@@font-weight:bold;font-size:1.3em;color:#444; //Working offline// &nbsp;&nbsp;@@ A fully functioning copy of this ~TiddlyWiki can be saved onto your hard drive or USB stick.  You can make changes and save them locally without being connected to the Internet.  When you're ready to sync up again, just click \"upload\" and your ~TiddlyWiki will be saved back to tiddlyspot.com.",
 "@@font-weight:bold;font-size:1.3em;color:#444; //Help!// &nbsp;&nbsp;@@ Find out more about ~TiddlyWiki at [[TiddlyWiki.com|http://tiddlywiki.com]].  Also visit [[TiddlyWiki.org|http://tiddlywiki.org]] for documentation on learning and using ~TiddlyWiki. New users are especially welcome on the [[TiddlyWiki mailing list|http://groups.google.com/group/TiddlyWiki]], which is an excellent place to ask questions and get help.  If you have a tiddlyspot related problem email [[tiddlyspot support|mailto:support@tiddlyspot.com]].",
 "@@font-weight:bold;font-size:1.3em;color:#444; //Enjoy :)// &nbsp;&nbsp;@@ We hope you like using your tiddlyspot.com site.  Please email [[feedback@tiddlyspot.com|mailto:feedback@tiddlyspot.com]] with any comments or suggestions."

 "| tiddlyspot password:|<<option pasUploadPassword>>|",
 "| site management:|<<upload http://" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ".tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi index.html . .  " + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ">>//(requires tiddlyspot password)//<br>[[control panel|http://" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ".tiddlyspot.com/controlpanel]], [[download (go offline)|http://" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ".tiddlyspot.com/download]]|",
 "| links:|[[tiddlyspot.com|http://tiddlyspot.com/]], [[FAQs|http://faq.tiddlyspot.com/]], [[blog|http://tiddlyspot.blogspot.com/]], email [[support|mailto:support@tiddlyspot.com]] & [[feedback|mailto:feedback@tiddlyspot.com]], [[donate|http://tiddlyspot.com/?page=donate]]|"

 "<<upload http://" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ".tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi index.html . .  " + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ">><html><a href='http://" + config.tiddlyspotSiteId + ".tiddlyspot.com/download' class='button'>download</a></html>"

 "tiddlyspot password:",
 "<<option pasUploadPassword>>",

A marketing coverage strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences and go after the hole market with one offer.
| !date | !user | !location | !storeUrl | !uploadDir | !toFilename | !backupdir | !origin |
| 06/07/2009 21:08:47 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 06/07/2009 21:10:48 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/#Advertising%20%5B%5BD4%20Case%20Study%20-%20Apple%5D%5D%20Marketing%20Promotion%20%5B%5BWeek%2011%20Course%20Content%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%2012%20Discussion%201%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%204%20Discussion%203%20-%20Marketing%20Environment%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%209%20Discussion%202%5D%5D%20%5B%5BNew%20Tiddler%5D%5D]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 06/07/2009 21:16:05 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/#Advertising%20%5B%5BD4%20Case%20Study%20-%20Apple%5D%5D%20Marketing%20Promotion%20%5B%5BWeek%2011%20Course%20Content%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%2012%20Discussion%201%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%204%20Discussion%203%20-%20Marketing%20Environment%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%209%20Discussion%202%5D%5D%20%5B%5BNew%20Tiddler%5D%5D]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 06/07/2009 21:57:31 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/#Advertising%20%5B%5BD4%20Case%20Study%20-%20Apple%5D%5D%20Marketing%20Promotion%20%5B%5BWeek%2011%20Course%20Content%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%2012%20Discussion%201%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%204%20Discussion%203%20-%20Marketing%20Environment%5D%5D%20%5B%5BWeek%209%20Discussion%202%5D%5D%20%5B%5BNew%20Tiddler%5D%5D]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 07/07/2009 22:34:24 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 07/07/2009 22:43:20 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 07/07/2009 22:48:21 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 09/07/2009 23:23:35 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 11/07/2009 12:59:40 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
| 12/07/2009 10:27:21 | MauricioOrtiz | [[/|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/]] | [[store.cgi|http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/store.cgi]] | . | [[index.html | http://mkt.tiddlyspot.com/index.html]] | . |
|''Description:''|Extends TiddlyWiki options with non encrypted password option.|
|''Date:''|Apr 19, 2007|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.2.0 (Beta 5)|
version.extensions.PasswordOptionPlugin = {
 major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 2, 
 date: new Date("Apr 19, 2007"),
 source: 'http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#PasswordOptionPlugin',
 author: 'BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info',
 license: '[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D]]',
 coreVersion: '2.2.0 (Beta 5)'

config.macros.option.passwordCheckboxLabel = "Save this password on this computer";
config.macros.option.passwordInputType = "password"; // password | text
setStylesheet(".pasOptionInput {width: 11em;}\n","passwordInputTypeStyle");

merge(config.macros.option.types, {
 'pas': {
 elementType: "input",
 valueField: "value",
 eventName: "onkeyup",
 className: "pasOptionInput",
 typeValue: config.macros.option.passwordInputType,
 create: function(place,type,opt,className,desc) {
 // password field
 // checkbox linked with this password "save this password on this computer"
 // text savePasswordCheckboxLabel
 onChange: config.macros.option.genericOnChange

merge(config.optionHandlers['chk'], {
 get: function(name) {
 // is there an option linked with this chk ?
 var opt = name.substr(3);
 if (config.options[opt]) 
 return config.options[name] ? "true" : "false";

merge(config.optionHandlers, {
 'pas': {
 get: function(name) {
 if (config.options["chk"+name]) {
 return encodeCookie(config.options[name].toString());
 } else {
 return "";
 set: function(name,value) {config.options[name] = decodeCookie(value);}

// need to reload options to load passwordOptions

if (!config.options['pasPassword'])
 config.options['pasPassword'] = '';

 pasPassword: "Test password"

|''Description:''|Save to web a TiddlyWiki|
|''Date:''|May 5, 2007|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.2.0 (#3125)|
version.extensions.UploadPlugin = {
 major: 4, minor: 1, revision: 0,
 date: new Date("May 5, 2007"),
 source: 'http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#UploadPlugin',
 author: 'BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info',
 coreVersion: '2.2.0 (#3125)'

// Environment

if (!window.bidix) window.bidix = {}; // bidix namespace
bidix.debugMode = false; // true to activate both in Plugin and UploadService
// Upload Macro

config.macros.upload = {
// default values
 defaultBackupDir: '', //no backup
 defaultStoreScript: "store.php",
 defaultToFilename: "index.html",
 defaultUploadDir: ".",
 authenticateUser: true // UploadService Authenticate User
config.macros.upload.label = {
 promptOption: "Save and Upload this TiddlyWiki with UploadOptions",
 promptParamMacro: "Save and Upload this TiddlyWiki in %0",
 saveLabel: "save to web", 
 saveToDisk: "save to disk",
 uploadLabel: "upload" 

config.macros.upload.messages = {
 noStoreUrl: "No store URL in parmeters or options",
 usernameOrPasswordMissing: "Username or password missing"

config.macros.upload.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
 if (readOnly)
 var label;
 if (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http") 
 label = this.label.saveLabel;
 label = this.label.uploadLabel;
 var prompt;
 if (params[0]) {
 prompt = this.label.promptParamMacro.toString().format([this.destFile(params[0], 
 (params[1] ? params[1]:bidix.basename(window.location.toString())), params[3])]);
 } else {
 prompt = this.label.promptOption;
 createTiddlyButton(place, label, prompt, function() {config.macros.upload.action(params);}, null, null, this.accessKey);

config.macros.upload.action = function(params)
 // for missing macro parameter set value from options
 var storeUrl = params[0] ? params[0] : config.options.txtUploadStoreUrl;
 var toFilename = params[1] ? params[1] : config.options.txtUploadFilename;
 var backupDir = params[2] ? params[2] : config.options.txtUploadBackupDir;
 var uploadDir = params[3] ? params[3] : config.options.txtUploadDir;
 var username = params[4] ? params[4] : config.options.txtUploadUserName;
 var password = config.options.pasUploadPassword; // for security reason no password as macro parameter 
 // for still missing parameter set default value
 if ((!storeUrl) && (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http")) 
 storeUrl = bidix.dirname(document.location.toString())+'/'+config.macros.upload.defaultStoreScript;
 if (storeUrl.substr(0,4) != "http")
 storeUrl = bidix.dirname(document.location.toString()) +'/'+ storeUrl;
 if (!toFilename)
 toFilename = bidix.basename(window.location.toString());
 if (!toFilename)
 toFilename = config.macros.upload.defaultToFilename;
 if (!uploadDir)
 uploadDir = config.macros.upload.defaultUploadDir;
 if (!backupDir)
 backupDir = config.macros.upload.defaultBackupDir;
 // report error if still missing
 if (!storeUrl) {
 return false;
 if (config.macros.upload.authenticateUser && (!username || !password)) {
 return false;
 bidix.upload.uploadChanges(false,null,storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir, username, password); 
 return false; 

config.macros.upload.destFile = function(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir) 
 if (!storeUrl)
 return null;
 var dest = bidix.dirname(storeUrl);
 if (uploadDir && uploadDir != '.')
 dest = dest + '/' + uploadDir;
 dest = dest + '/' + toFilename;
 return dest;

// uploadOptions Macro

config.macros.uploadOptions = {
 handler: function(place,macroName,params) {
 var wizard = new Wizard();
 var markList = wizard.getElement("markList");
 var listWrapper = document.createElement("div");
 var uploadCaption;
 if (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http") 
 uploadCaption = config.macros.upload.label.saveLabel;
 uploadCaption = config.macros.upload.label.uploadLabel;
 {caption: uploadCaption, tooltip: config.macros.upload.label.promptOption, 
 onClick: config.macros.upload.action},
 {caption: this.cancelButton, tooltip: this.cancelButtonPrompt, onClick: this.onCancel}
 refreshOptions: function(listWrapper) {
 var uploadOpts = [
 var opts = [];
 for(i=0; i<uploadOpts.length; i++) {
 var opt = {};
 opt.option = "";
 n = uploadOpts[i];
 opt.name = n;
 opt.lowlight = !config.optionsDesc[n];
 opt.description = opt.lowlight ? this.unknownDescription : config.optionsDesc[n];
 var listview = ListView.create(listWrapper,opts,this.listViewTemplate);
 for(n=0; n<opts.length; n++) {
 var type = opts[n].name.substr(0,3);
 var h = config.macros.option.types[type];
 if (h && h.create) {
 onCancel: function(e)
 return false;
 wizardTitle: "Upload with options",
 step1Title: "These options are saved in cookies in your browser",
 step1Html: "<input type='hidden' name='markList'></input><br>",
 cancelButton: "Cancel",
 cancelButtonPrompt: "Cancel prompt",
 listViewTemplate: {
 columns: [
 {name: 'Description', field: 'description', title: "Description", type: 'WikiText'},
 {name: 'Option', field: 'option', title: "Option", type: 'String'},
 {name: 'Name', field: 'name', title: "Name", type: 'String'}
 rowClasses: [
 {className: 'lowlight', field: 'lowlight'} 

// upload functions

if (!bidix.upload) bidix.upload = {};

if (!bidix.upload.messages) bidix.upload.messages = {
 //from saving
 invalidFileError: "The original file '%0' does not appear to be a valid TiddlyWiki",
 backupSaved: "Backup saved",
 backupFailed: "Failed to upload backup file",
 rssSaved: "RSS feed uploaded",
 rssFailed: "Failed to upload RSS feed file",
 emptySaved: "Empty template uploaded",
 emptyFailed: "Failed to upload empty template file",
 mainSaved: "Main TiddlyWiki file uploaded",
 mainFailed: "Failed to upload main TiddlyWiki file. Your changes have not been saved",
 //specific upload
 loadOriginalHttpPostError: "Can't get original file",
 aboutToSaveOnHttpPost: 'About to upload on %0 ...',
 storePhpNotFound: "The store script '%0' was not found."

bidix.upload.uploadChanges = function(onlyIfDirty,tiddlers,storeUrl,toFilename,uploadDir,backupDir,username,password)
 var callback = function(status,uploadParams,original,url,xhr) {
 if (!status) {
 if (bidix.debugMode) 
 // Locate the storeArea div's 
 var posDiv = locateStoreArea(original);
 if((posDiv[0] == -1) || (posDiv[1] == -1)) {
 if(onlyIfDirty && !store.isDirty())
 // save on localdisk ?
 if (document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "file") {
 var path = document.location.toString();
 var localPath = getLocalPath(path);
 // get original
 var uploadParams = Array(storeUrl,toFilename,uploadDir,backupDir,username,password);
 var originalPath = document.location.toString();
 // If url is a directory : add index.html
 if (originalPath.charAt(originalPath.length-1) == "/")
 originalPath = originalPath + "index.html";
 var dest = config.macros.upload.destFile(storeUrl,toFilename,uploadDir);
 var log = new bidix.UploadLog();
 log.startUpload(storeUrl, dest, uploadDir, backupDir);
 if (bidix.debugMode) 
 alert("about to execute Http - GET on "+originalPath);
 var r = doHttp("GET",originalPath,null,null,null,null,callback,uploadParams,null);
 if (typeof r == "string")
 return r;

bidix.upload.uploadRss = function(uploadParams,original,posDiv) 
 var callback = function(status,params,responseText,url,xhr) {
 if(status) {
 var destfile = responseText.substring(responseText.indexOf("destfile:")+9,responseText.indexOf("\n", responseText.indexOf("destfile:")));
 } else {
 // do uploadRss
 if(config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed) {
 var rssPath = uploadParams[1].substr(0,uploadParams[1].lastIndexOf(".")) + ".xml";
 var rssUploadParams = Array(uploadParams[0],rssPath,uploadParams[2],'',uploadParams[4],uploadParams[5]);
 } else {

bidix.upload.uploadMain = function(uploadParams,original,posDiv) 
 var callback = function(status,params,responseText,url,xhr) {
 var log = new bidix.UploadLog();
 if(status) {
 // if backupDir specified
 if ((params[3]) && (responseText.indexOf("backupfile:") > -1)) {
 var backupfile = responseText.substring(responseText.indexOf("backupfile:")+11,responseText.indexOf("\n", responseText.indexOf("backupfile:")));
 var destfile = responseText.substring(responseText.indexOf("destfile:")+9,responseText.indexOf("\n", responseText.indexOf("destfile:")));
 } else {
 // do uploadMain
 var revised = bidix.upload.updateOriginal(original,posDiv);

bidix.upload.httpUpload = function(uploadParams,data,callback,params)
 var localCallback = function(status,params,responseText,url,xhr) {
 url = (url.indexOf("nocache=") < 0 ? url : url.substring(0,url.indexOf("nocache=")-1));
 if (xhr.status == httpStatus.NotFound)
 if ((bidix.debugMode) || (responseText.indexOf("Debug mode") >= 0 )) {
 if (responseText.indexOf("Debug mode") >= 0 )
 responseText = responseText.substring(responseText.indexOf("\n\n")+2);
 } else if (responseText.charAt(0) != '0') 
 if (responseText.charAt(0) != '0')
 status = null;
 // do httpUpload
 var boundary = "---------------------------"+"AaB03x"; 
 var uploadFormName = "UploadPlugin";
 // compose headers data
 var sheader = "";
 sheader += "--" + boundary + "\r\nContent-disposition: form-data; name=\"";
 sheader += uploadFormName +"\"\r\n\r\n";
 sheader += "backupDir="+uploadParams[3] +
 ";user=" + uploadParams[4] +
 ";password=" + uploadParams[5] +
 ";uploaddir=" + uploadParams[2];
 if (bidix.debugMode)
 sheader += ";debug=1";
 sheader += ";;\r\n"; 
 sheader += "\r\n" + "--" + boundary + "\r\n";
 sheader += "Content-disposition: form-data; name=\"userfile\"; filename=\""+uploadParams[1]+"\"\r\n";
 sheader += "Content-Type: text/html;charset=UTF-8" + "\r\n";
 sheader += "Content-Length: " + data.length + "\r\n\r\n";
 // compose trailer data
 var strailer = new String();
 strailer = "\r\n--" + boundary + "--\r\n";
 data = sheader + data + strailer;
 if (bidix.debugMode) alert("about to execute Http - POST on "+uploadParams[0]+"\n with \n"+data.substr(0,500)+ " ... ");
 var r = doHttp("POST",uploadParams[0],data,"multipart/form-data; boundary="+boundary,uploadParams[4],uploadParams[5],localCallback,params,null);
 if (typeof r == "string")
 return r;

// same as Saving's updateOriginal but without convertUnicodeToUTF8 calls
bidix.upload.updateOriginal = function(original, posDiv)
 if (!posDiv)
 posDiv = locateStoreArea(original);
 if((posDiv[0] == -1) || (posDiv[1] == -1)) {
 var revised = original.substr(0,posDiv[0] + startSaveArea.length) + "\n" +
 store.allTiddlersAsHtml() + "\n" +
 var newSiteTitle = getPageTitle().htmlEncode();
 revised = revised.replaceChunk("<title"+">","</title"+">"," " + newSiteTitle + " ");
 revised = updateMarkupBlock(revised,"PRE-HEAD","MarkupPreHead");
 revised = updateMarkupBlock(revised,"POST-HEAD","MarkupPostHead");
 revised = updateMarkupBlock(revised,"PRE-BODY","MarkupPreBody");
 revised = updateMarkupBlock(revised,"POST-SCRIPT","MarkupPostBody");
 return revised;

// UploadLog
// config.options.chkUploadLog :
// false : no logging
// true : logging
// config.options.txtUploadLogMaxLine :
// -1 : no limit
// 0 : no Log lines but UploadLog is still in place
// n : the last n lines are only kept
// NaN : no limit (-1)

bidix.UploadLog = function() {
 if (!config.options.chkUploadLog) 
 return; // this.tiddler = null
 this.tiddler = store.getTiddler("UploadLog");
 if (!this.tiddler) {
 this.tiddler = new Tiddler();
 this.tiddler.title = "UploadLog";
 this.tiddler.text = "| !date | !user | !location | !storeUrl | !uploadDir | !toFilename | !backupdir | !origin |";
 this.tiddler.created = new Date();
 this.tiddler.modifier = config.options.txtUserName;
 this.tiddler.modified = new Date();
 return this;

bidix.UploadLog.prototype.addText = function(text) {
 if (!this.tiddler)
 // retrieve maxLine when we need it
 var maxLine = parseInt(config.options.txtUploadLogMaxLine,10);
 if (isNaN(maxLine))
 maxLine = -1;
 // add text
 if (maxLine != 0) 
 this.tiddler.text = this.tiddler.text + text;
 // Trunck to maxLine
 if (maxLine >= 0) {
 var textArray = this.tiddler.text.split('\n');
 if (textArray.length > maxLine + 1)
 this.tiddler.text = textArray.join('\n'); 
 // update tiddler fields
 this.tiddler.modifier = config.options.txtUserName;
 this.tiddler.modified = new Date();
 // refresh and notifiy for immediate update
 store.notify(this.tiddler.title, true);

bidix.UploadLog.prototype.startUpload = function(storeUrl, toFilename, uploadDir, backupDir) {
 if (!this.tiddler)
 var now = new Date();
 var text = "\n| ";
 var filename = bidix.basename(document.location.toString());
 if (!filename) filename = '/';
 text += now.formatString("0DD/0MM/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss") +" | ";
 text += config.options.txtUserName + " | ";
 text += "[["+filename+"|"+location + "]] |";
 text += " [[" + bidix.basename(storeUrl) + "|" + storeUrl + "]] | ";
 text += uploadDir + " | ";
 text += "[[" + bidix.basename(toFilename) + " | " +toFilename + "]] | ";
 text += backupDir + " |";

bidix.UploadLog.prototype.endUpload = function(status) {
 if (!this.tiddler)
 this.addText(" "+status+" |");

// Utilities

bidix.checkPlugin = function(plugin, major, minor, revision) {
 var ext = version.extensions[plugin];
 if (!
 (ext && 
 ((ext.major > major) || 
 ((ext.major == major) && (ext.minor > minor)) ||
 ((ext.major == major) && (ext.minor == minor) && (ext.revision >= revision))))) {
 // write error in PluginManager
 if (pluginInfo)
 pluginInfo.log.push("Requires " + plugin + " " + major + "." + minor + "." + revision);
 eval(plugin); // generate an error : "Error: ReferenceError: xxxx is not defined"

bidix.dirname = function(filePath) {
 if (!filePath) 
 var lastpos;
 if ((lastpos = filePath.lastIndexOf("/")) != -1) {
 return filePath.substring(0, lastpos);
 } else {
 return filePath.substring(0, filePath.lastIndexOf("\\"));

bidix.basename = function(filePath) {
 if (!filePath) 
 var lastpos;
 if ((lastpos = filePath.lastIndexOf("#")) != -1) 
 filePath = filePath.substring(0, lastpos);
 if ((lastpos = filePath.lastIndexOf("/")) != -1) {
 return filePath.substring(lastpos + 1);
 } else
 return filePath.substring(filePath.lastIndexOf("\\")+1);

bidix.initOption = function(name,value) {
 if (!config.options[name])
 config.options[name] = value;

// Initializations

// require PasswordOptionPlugin 1.0.1 or better
bidix.checkPlugin("PasswordOptionPlugin", 1, 0, 1);

// styleSheet
setStylesheet('.txtUploadStoreUrl, .txtUploadBackupDir, .txtUploadDir {width: 22em;}',"uploadPluginStyles");

 txtUploadStoreUrl: "Url of the UploadService script (default: store.php)",
 txtUploadFilename: "Filename of the uploaded file (default: in index.html)",
 txtUploadDir: "Relative Directory where to store the file (default: . (downloadService directory))",
 txtUploadBackupDir: "Relative Directory where to backup the file. If empty no backup. (default: ''(empty))",
 txtUploadUserName: "Upload Username",
 pasUploadPassword: "Upload Password",
 chkUploadLog: "do Logging in UploadLog (default: true)",
 txtUploadLogMaxLine: "Maximum of lines in UploadLog (default: 10)"

// Options Initializations

/* don't want this for tiddlyspot sites

// Backstage
 uploadOptions: {text: "upload", tooltip: "Change UploadOptions and Upload", content: '<<uploadOptions>>'}


If the performance and the customer’s experience is lower than expectations, than customer satisfaction is low.
If the performance and the customer’s experience meets expectations, than the customer is satisfied.
If the performance and the customer’s experience exceeds expectations, than the customer is delighted.
Costs that vary directly with the level of production.
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WOMMA is the official trade association for the word of mouth marketing industry. WOMMA's mission is to promote and improve word of mouth marketing by:

Promoting "best practices" to ensure more effective marketing 
Protecting consumers and the industry with strong ethical guidelines 
Evangelizing word of mouth as an effective marketing tool 
Setting standards to encourage its use.

At MM-Audio the price policy differs whether is a consumer product or movie production professional equipment. The difference lies on the factor that profit margins, on video editing in the movie production field, is declining. Technology as well is advancing and dropping the prices down, competitors offers new features and very similar prices and forces prices down as well. There's many factors MM-Audio needs to be aware of.

On the consumer area there's some flexibility regarding pricing -price band-, but is still framed by many external factors (and internal as well).

The company utilizes many introductory prices, and always offers the best balance on price/service/quality. 30% percent of MM-Audio pricing structure involves the customization and services surrounding the product, such as support and guaranties.

In the consumer sector, in many home based music production mini studios and MIDI keyboards, the pricing trend start with either introductory or market-skimming pricing, after certain timing on the market, the model and certain factors will push the strategy to a competition based pricing.

Now a days, the consumer music hardware and software music edition equipment is encounter so much competition that is forcing companies to excel in quality and better services, but at the same times, maximize the temptation to drive the prices so further down that services some times are cut down to unrecommended levels.

Many external factors affect the pricing strategies regarding MM-Audio professional equipment, particularly technology advancement. There's a direct correlation with computer processing power and price that pushes the prices down every quarter.

Plus, much of the pricing itself isn't because of the product itself (hardware and software) but the service involved. Professional equipment requires installation, customization and ongoing support services that many times goes for month up to years. So, pricing in these cases are set individually, in case to case basis.

Many of these transactions as well are long term contracts that involves many products and services, financing, leasings and other financial interactions between the company, contractors and final customers that many times involves hundreds of thousands of dollars up to some times millions of dollars. Since that pricing is under contract, it doesn't change during that contract term, but as soon as those contracts are up, a new negotiation start with the client; and many times, a new battle with competitors commence again. 
<html><div style="text-align: justify;">
    <span style="font-weight: bold; color: rgb(255, 124, 47);">* The Pricing Strategy</span><br><span style="color: rgb(50, 66, 55);">most commonly used, I think is the "cost based approach". Particularly for many retailers who will add up some margin on top of the cost of the merchandise (cost-plus pricing). As well, as internet allows customers to compare prices, other approaches and creativity needs to be used, as as many goods are becoming commodities.</span><br><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><br><span style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="color: rgb(255, 124, 47);">* EDLP</span></span><br><span style="font-weight: bold;"></span><span style="color: rgb(50, 66, 55);">is the most difficult to achieve. I think maintaining a very low price everyday is truly difficult. Involves a complete restructure of the company as a whole, new, and complete automated methods of logistics. Plus huge power capacities, a fluid international trade mechanism, incredible accurate inventory management, absolute understanding of regulations and proactive approach to internal and external technological and bureaucratic changes. Very few companies are being able to accomplish this approach.</span><br><br><span style="font-weight: bold; color: rgb(255, 124, 47);">* Value Pricing</span><br><span style="color: rgb(50, 66, 55);">strategy has the greatest potential for long-term growth of the organization. I would say this strategy is the most likely to be accepted by the market as fair, doesn't cannibalize production cost, and the customer already believe that's the right price. Initial analysis are being taken and the price is already set before marketing programs are set. Many companies already use this approach and I believe is a convenient strategy.</span><br><br><span style="font-weight: bold; color: rgb(255, 124, 47);">* Dynamic Pricing</span><br><span style="color: rgb(50, 66, 55);">is most likely to be a pricing objective used by an e-commerce-oriented company? Explain.
Just as the "Marketing at Work" side note explain. The Dynamic Pricing approach allows to change prices depending on individual customers and situations. We see that e-commerce is an individual experience, more than a social one. And successful internet retailers understand that individual customization is a key success factor. Just as Canadian Tire, many retailers tailor logistic capabilities, inventory and delivery time based on particularities such as geography, time of purchase of time of delivery or even puck up options. Plus, I believe customers are well served when the retailer cater the many features to the customer, including the price.</span></div></html>
READ CHAPTER 11 (Entirely)

After reading this chapter the students will be able to:

1. explain why companies use distribution channels and discuss the functions these channels perform, particularly those of retailers and wholesalers

2. discuss how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel

3. identify the major channel alternatives open to a company

4. explain how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members

5. discuss the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management

In Chapter 11 we cover the third “P” of marketing: place, or distribution. Distribution channels are also referred to as marketing channels, and, like other marketing decisions, designing channels is a strategic marketing function. We’ll look at the “back end” of the channel—how parts and supplies get to the company. This is called supply chain management, and it involves an understanding of logistics. Then we’ll look at the “front end” of the channel—how the finished product gets into the hands of the customer.

 Firms rarely work alone in bringing value to customers. Instead, most are only a single link in a larger supply chain or distribution channel. As such, an individual firm’s success depends not only on how well it performs, but also on how well its entire distribution channel competes with competitors’ channels. Channel decisions are among the most important decisions management faces. A company’s channel decisions are linked with every other marketing decision. The company’s pricing depends on whether it sells its product through mass merchandisers or high-quality specialty stores. Sales force and advertising decisions depend on how much persuasion, training, motivation, and support the dealers need. Whether a company develops or acquires certain new products may depend on how well those products fit the capabilities of its channel members.

 The first part of this chapter explores the nature of distribution channels, including their two best-known component: retailing and wholesaling. We then examine the marketer’s channel design and management decisions, and the important area of physical distribution, or logistics.

Most producers use intermediaries to bring their products to market. They try to forge a distribution channel—a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. The two terms marketing channel and distribution channel are usually used interchangeably. In this textbook we will generally use the term distribution channel. The term supply chain refers more broadly to a collection of organizations that in a collaborative manner handles production, marketing, and logistics for a product.
WHEN YOU READ CHAPTER 11 – pay particular attention to:
The Nature of Distribution Channels (Pages 421-423)

Why are Marketing Intermediaries Used?

Distribution Channel Functions

Number of Channel Levels
Wholesaling (Pages 423-427)

Types of Wholesalers

Wholesaler Marketing Decisions
Retailing (Pages 427-434)

Types of Retailers

Product Line

Retail Organizations

Retail Marketing Decisions
Week 11 – Discussion 1

Choose a product for which you have a brand loyalty.

Using Figure 11.2 on page 423 tell a story (using the language of the textbook) to narrate how your product would move from the Manufacturer, to the Wholesaler, to the Jobber, to Retailer where you finally purchase your product.

You will need to use your imagination to pilot your product through this long channel of distribution.

I’ll be grading your participation for this week’s discussion based on your ability to discuss all the levels of the “consumer marketing distribution channel.”
Week 11 – Discussion 2

The “Distribution Channel” is a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer of business user. Discuss the “Distribution” of a product or service in your organization.
MM-Audio produces Pinnacle Music Studio for home professionals.

Pinnacle Music Studio is at home of thousands of enthusiast in five continents and reaches each home through a vast array of distributors.

The model it uses (according to what I believe, since I don't have exact information regarding its channels) is:

Channel 3: Manufacturer -> Wholesaler -> Retailer -> Consumer.

From one of the four manufacturers (North America, Europe, Middle East and Asia) the company sells Pinnacle to a wholesaler (or more specifically a distribution office) and then it sells it to a retailer (think of Tom Lee Music Store in Vancouver).

The wholesaler select and build assortments needed by their customers, saving the consumer of these tasks. 

As well, the retailer buys the product to the wholesaler and offer a smaller volume of the product (normally one unit per customer or as part of a bundle) to the final customer. At the same time, can offer promotions, running ads and offering specialize help to music enthusiasts. 
Discuss the “Distribution” of a product or service in your organization.

The distribution channel at MM-Audio is the arm of the organization. It covers all regions and almost 150 countries. A big computerized systems helps distributors to channel MM-Audio products to final customers. Besides, some particularly specific technical configurations for movie productions are done directly with MM-Audio professionals with the help of other consultant and technical companies.

For all other products, and for all other markets, MM-Audio gets the help of its extended array of VARs of "Value Added Resellers", which are independent contractors that increase the value of MM-Audio products by offering financing, technical support, guarantees, consultancy and other services.

MM-Audio share the gain as well as the pain with its channel. In good times, the company share profits, and in downturns, the company does its best to protect them and to keep them.

VAR Support. In the industry, there's no better and more apparent support for a channel than at MM-Audio. The company keeps hundreds of offices to address specific request and training (including MM-Audio, Avid University) open to all MM-Audio distribution channel.

Parts and support are instantly delivered to direct customers when the VAR specify it that way.

There are no secret between the company an its distributors, they have access to all prices and inventory, any change to this access will do nothing but to damage the mutual relationship. The VAR have real time access to all MM-Audio processes regarding new product releases.

VAR Performance, MM-Audio does all to its reach to support and make sure the distribution channel run smoothly. It closely monitors each agent and agency, distribution sales, service capability, market position, mar up level and other performance measures. All this is done with the goal of helping the channel succeed, if the distribution channel doesn't run at its best, MM-Audio looses money, brand recognition and clients.

Personal Relationships: Face to face relationships are most important to MM-Audio. Seminars and trade shows, specifically cater to the distribution channel run thought the year. Many festivities, shows and leisure meetings shape our mutual relationship.

MM-Audio superb distribution channel system serves as a source of competitive advantage. Is hard to compete with such a well organize body, but brings challenges as well that needs to be addressed day by day. But this dedication ensures a bright future.    

Sales Promotion

I just got on the mail the following sales direct marketing mail promotion:

"Beauty Boutique"
**Gift Certificate**
**From Shoppers Drug Mart**

Please present this certificate and enjoy $20 off your total beauty boutique purchase
Between now and July 17th, 2009"

It is absolutely a promotion, since they don't expect an immediate interaction from me as customer, but they expect brand reinforcement. Though it contain as well a coupon (or Gift Certificate) where they expect some action from the market. Is absolutely an activity designed to boost the sales of a product or service. It may include an advertising campaign, like in this case, a free-sample campaign, offering free gifts or trading stamps, arranging demonstrations or exhibitions, setting up competitions with attractive prizes, temporary price reductions, door-to-door calling, telemarketing, personal letters, etc”.

What I found interesting is the knowledge of the market target and the specific marketers can be with promotions campaigns. Since I won't using this gift certificate myself, they know in my household there will be potential customers and the chance of purchases are high.

They know all this just by my own input to them and the usage pattern on the store . They always asked me for my Shopper Drug Mart Store Premium Card every time I purchase, therefore, they know my address, my spending pattern, my frequency of purchase and, they know as well that there's people interested on beauty products.

In my conversation with a sales representative at MicroEngineering Ltd. I learnt they utilizes several approaches depending on the circumstances, whether is an industrial or professional customer, if is a recurrent client or a first time prospect. Different approaches are taken as well if the sales presentation is being made to an individual customers, or a group of people, of if is a presentation to several prospects of a presentation in a trade show, etc.

The theory of the seven points is always present, but some tweaks are sometimes necessary, depending of many factors, including the sales style of the representative. Experiences regional sales representatives tend to be able to modify the sales presentations in a more customary manner than the new junior salesperson, who is comfortable following the principles closely. More experience representatives can sense if they can skips some steps to speed up the sales, or slowdown the process or even go back to square one to clarify any questions or concerns of potential customers.

The same situation and principles are followed when the sales is conducted over the phone, email, chat, or webcam. But when the medium is different, approaches are different too.

being the customer one of the most important assets is important to understand their needs and requirements and not to overuse their time, so some of the sales steps are shrunk as well, when necessary.

A personal selling approach implies that the company account with sales representatives with appropriate knowledge about the products and services they sell. This is as well a key factor, since the customer look for assistance and help in making a purchase decision. As well look for a consultant in the specific field. Continuing with being careful not to overuse customer's time, unless the prerequisite is met, there is no point to encouraging personal selling because the result will be counter productive.

Two important rules I was given regarding personal sales:

 Rule No. 1 - Be friendly. The salesperson must be friendly without being too familiar, and lead the way without being pushy. It is best to let customers do most of the talking while you watch their nonverbal responses and listen to what they say. This approach gives the customer a feeling of security because they appear to be controlling the encounter. The nature of the clientele will determine what is acceptable sales behavior.

Rule No. 2 - Determine what the customer wants. The salesperson should listen carefully, because what the customer says may not be what he wants. The salesperson's task is to interpret the customer's verbal and nonverbal communication.

Sales representative are problem solvers. With that in mind, the process of selling is fluent and is rewarding, since a service is done by satisfying the customer with their need or want, making the business customer most efficient with that business product, or making that personal customer feeling more confident with that well tailored attire.
<html>Regarding Public Relations activities, MM-Audio possess an extensive communications department, for certain events, and crisis managements, the company has developed partnerships with third party PR Companies.

MM-Audio push a strong PR activity, so vast that almost deliver a new press release in a daily basis.<br><br>The company has even been criticize for the large amount in the media, warning that with so many communication points, it can loose preeminence.

Every update of every product, hardware and software trigger a press release automatically. Every change in the executive force triggers another one, and every milestone in the financial area, trigger another PR.<br><br>The company argues that all those PR aren't deliver to the same public, and thus, some news are interesting to some publics but other aren't. Some PR goes to financial media, others to computer magazines, etc.

With this strategy, MM-Audio has presence in about 80% of the media worldwide.<br><br>Almost every newspaper or general public magazine has wrote about MM-Audio or an MM-Audio product at some point. And coverage is vast in internet, including blogs, forums and social media sites.

One of the latest press releases that catch my attention was a PR from May 5th, 2009 about a new music software:
a easy-to-use software, targeted  7- to 12-year-old to create their own music:
<br><br style="font-family: courier;"><span style="font-family: courier;">TEWKSBURY, MA, May 5, 2009 – MM-Audio® (NASDAQ: AVID) today announced the availability of Groovy Music City, a fun music software program that empowers kids to start creating their own music from an early age. The Groovy Music City software’s easy-to-use interface provides kids with the ability to create a wide range of music such as house, hip-hop, classical and jazz – without any previous musical instrument experience.</span><br style="font-family: courier;"><br style="font-family: courier;"><span style="font-family: courier;">Using Groovy Music City software, kids can create songs by arranging a series of entertaining shapes and machines against the backdrop of an animated and futuristic city. A simple drag-and-drop interface lets kids choose from hundreds of rhythms, melodies, bass lines, patterns and chords to compose songs with just a few mouse clicks. They also have the option of selecting from a library of 128 virtual instruments or attaching a MIDI keyboard to create their own unique compositions.<br><br>***<br><br style="font-family: trebuchet;"><span style="font-family: trebuchet;">With this press release, the company is announcing, without actually explicitly mentioning that is starting to target a new market segment: the children.</span><br style="font-family: trebuchet;"><br style="font-family: trebuchet;"><span style="font-family: trebuchet;">Is interesting how the companies try to gain access to this new market, that highly influences parents about purchasing patterns.</span><br><br><br>     </span></html>
<html><span style="font-weight: bold;">Butterflies - Artist and Creative Professionals</span><br><br>This group is no loyal, but they consume and utilize the products that MM-Audio is investing in the most. The fit between this group and the company goes in the high potential for growth. This market segment perform on stage, then the endorsements to the company are invaluable, because other professionals and artists see their peers using our products. Nevertheless the tend to try several providers in different instances and their commitments are short term.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">True friends – Corporate and Government</span><br><br>The value of this market segment is the transaction amount and longer term contracts. 
The corporate world tend to invest heavily when they make a decision on a supplier. Besides, when corporations and governments decide to fulfill their needs they usually use the "one stop shop" strategy, which means they buy all the products and the expertise from one supplier. Thus, MM-Audio produce, direct, capture and edit picture &amp; sound for videos, presentations, and live events, -such as corporate shows, big political nominations, etc.-<br><br>

This group bring the highest profit potential and every business step is critical. They are normally loyal, and credits and payments are well established with long term contracts. MM-Audio invest intensely in this group looking to nurture, retain this segment and deliver the extra mile.<br><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">Strangers - Home Video makers enthusiasts</span><br><br>Even more than ever people at home are filming themselves, and sometimes making their own cuts. The market is smaller than it seems, and the growth potential doesn't fit our future product developments. A big percentage just use a web video camera incorporated with a PC to film small pieces and short amateur movies. As well, amateurs home video makers is a market that doesn't growth at the rate the industry though.

There's for sure a limited fit between MM-Audio and this group, since MM-Audio is strong developer of audio and professional and
semi professional video products.<br><br style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">Barnacles – Home Audio Enthusiast and Education Segments</span><br><br>There's a limited fit between home audio enthusiast and the educational segment, but they are loyal and the potential is there.<br><br>
MM-Audio introduce itself to the home audio business few years ago and sees a promising future. But there's a curve that needs to be ride, and right now profits are low.<br><br>

There's a limited fit between what the company offers, since the product portfolio wasn't developed for this segment few years ago. Even more, it was this group that started to be interested in our semi-professional products. That inverse approach, and other business events, suggested that MM-Audio should pay attention to this group.<br><br>

The education segment is somewhat more committed but investments are limited to budgets, which bring particular challenges in the way of how to deliver our solutions to them, such as financing, leasing, lending through non-profit organizations, etc. Nevertheless, MM-Audio is committed to support the creative young generations and its instructors. That's why MM-Audio created specific workshops and lectures to bring students with the tools and the skills that will allow them to seamlessly move from classroom to cutting room.<br><br>

This is a hard-to-manage segment, that's why MM-Audio is continually looking for new strategies to increase profit and create loyalty with this market.<br><br>

MM-Audio clearly understand that each of this segments bring separate challenges and there's a different relationship strategy management that drive our business with each of them. </html>
Being the customers the centre of MM-Audio business, there's a close interacction between the marketing strategy applied and the marketing mix -product, price, place (distribution) and promotion-. This relationship guarantee a continuous grow both in profit and client satisfaction. Integrating marketing strategy as how MM-Audio reach those goals, we see that the company, for instance, reorganized all its product portfolio, adapting itself to a new transversal customer segment. This new plan of action is called "New Thinking" marketing strategy, for the company going forward—including simplifying the editing product line, reducing the price of the software version of Media Composer®, and improving focus on the education marketplace.

This "New Thinking" way put the customer as the core of our operations, with 'customer satisfaction' as the day-to-day drive.

Knowing there are many different types of clients, this "New Thinking" way is a flexible approach to a separate segments that provide the necessary feedback to set the way we provide solutions, the way we set prices and fees, the way we place the product into the clients hands (being the online channel our new strength  to distribute software) and the way we let our customers now about our products and solutions (promotion).

This way, the target marketing is set to every separate group, showing different qualities about our solutions to different segments, which allow us to position ourselves in a leadership slot in most of those markets. 
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Subject: Week 2 Discussion 3 	Topic: WEEK 02 Discussion 3 – The 4P’s of Marketing
Author: Mauricio OrtizView PeopleLink Options for this User 	Date: April 25, 2009 10:11 PM

*From the largest recording facilities to the smallest bedroom studios, Pro Tools® is the most popular sound creation and production system in the world.

*Deko 1000® is a Real-time HD or SD graphics and advanced effects for live production and newsroom integration.

*Alienbrain® is a digital asset management system for artists in the entertainment industry. It combines everything studios need to securely store, version, manage and share any kind of file, with an intuitive user interface.

*Sleek and stylish, the new 24-channel Digidesign® C|24® control surface provides direct hands-on control of Pro Tools® mixing, recording, and editing, a complete array of high-quality analog inputs, and a 5.1 analog monitor section to use with your Pro Tools I/O.

*Sibelious®, music notation software for musicians and conservatory music instructors.

*Many others products and customized solutions for specific clients.


*The price is based on Marketing global strategic analysis; internal and external market environment; international distribution systems, regions and zones; currency exchanges, among others. Final prices are set for local retailers, franchises and online pricing. Large contracts include factors such as financing, lines of credits, leasings, factorings, etc.

*Price varies and are determined by type of market segment, country, and whether clients are governments, universities, colleges, non-govermental organizations or final customers.

*Special prices for educational institutions, non-governmental organizations and new consumer produts, among other business factors.


*MM-Audio trade shows and seminars.
*MM-Audio website.
*MM-Audio sponsored live concerts.
*MM-Audio artists endorsements.
*Consumer and trade magazines, online articles, online banners, newspaper ads for consumer products. TV, Radio, digital radio, iPhone Apps, etc.
*Audio studio references and endorsements.
*Movie production studios references and endorsements.
*Awards - Oscars, Junos, Grammis, Movie festivals, Las Vegas and other cities live shows, etc. (ie. Slumdog Millionaire share two sound and video awards with MM-Audio (2008.)
*Give-aways, online and offline consumer coupons.
*Software and hardware trials.
*Discount entry level consumer products.


*Global Headquarters (NY, California, Toronto, Montreal, Belgium, Paris, Germany, Tokio)

*Large number of retailers and franchises around the world.

*Online distribution:
partnership with several retailers -Amazon.com-, etc.

*MM-Audio e-commerce Websites (several languages).
Reply Forward
Trough the years, MM-Audio drives itself through social responsible way of producing and distributing its products. With a strong sense of ethics in mind, the company creates its products in a 'green way', which means, its hardware products are free -or have the lowest account in comparison with competition- of pollutants and toxic by-product release of contaminants.

Much of the criticism on hardware makers is the PVC content (among others) on its structure. Even though MM-Audio recognizes that  technology hasn't developed a 100% clean way of producing hardware. We, in MM-Audio, make every possible effort in  limitating contaminants on its assembly line.

On the other side, MM-Audio understand that knowledge is key on making a social impact in the communities we work and play. That's the reason why we establish  MM-Audio Academy, offering grands, awards, sponsorships and taking care, financially of our best student of music engineering, audio and TV production, movie production, visual engineering and many other areas. And is open to everyone.

Every step of our production and developing process for all our products, such as Pinnacle Audio, ProTools, et all, are open to everyone to see.

We have 1800 toll free lines to answer every question about our social responsibility share and our website includes a forum specifically dedicated to the topic.

Our policy about "Every Country Counts" explain our participation in Film Festivals in developing countries such as some communities in Brasil, South Africa and our entire production and production of the Malassian Fil Festival were all the proceeds were share in the community to encourage young talents to keep away of several addiction and the "sex trade ending" campaign developed by United Nations and co-sponsored by the Red Cross.  
Subject: Week 3 Discussion 2 MM-Audio 	 
Author: Mauricio Ortiz 	Sent April 30, 2009 7:13 PM

Much of the concern and criticism from the public is the called e-waste. Some of the retail and consumer audio and video products we produce end up in waste lands, many in developing countries, creating a harmful environment to those communities and therefore damaging the image in the cutting edge technology industry.

Is true that many IT (Information Technology) companies propose that is up to the final consumer where she throw her garbage. But at MM-Audio we are taking the issue in our own hands with the cooperation of our users and partners.

As well, the components of some products might become pollutants after their lifetime, and an unorganized disposal, without a recycle policy, could be a threat to health. We, as industry, understand that criticism is valid.

That's a great concern in our organization. We own the responsibility, in conjunction with the industry, of ending the e-waste.

That's why we are partnering with Greenpeace and other non governmental organizations to continually minimize size, packaging and materials.

Some of the successes we can provide and take environmental credit for, are flat screens replacing CRT monitors, wireless reducing cables, eliminating some chemical components in tapes and plastics, among other initiatives. Nevertheless we are looking to go beyond what is required and that is a never ending effort in MM-Audio.
Subject: Week 4 Discussion 1 - MM-Audio 	 
Author: Mauricio Ortiz 	Sent May 7, 2009 7:56 PM

The company:
Serving the industries that Make, Manage and Move Media™, MM-Audio is the world leader in digital nonlinear media creation, management and distribution solutions, enabling film, video, audio and broadcast news professionals to work more efficiently, productively and creatively. The company serve TV networks such us ABC, NBC, CBC and CNN among many others. As well is being rewarded for its solutions with information about the company’s Oscar®, Grammy®, and Emmy® awards.

With its five separate industries, the company is compose of five headquarters serving and leading six mayor markets: Education, Home, Enthusiasts Artists & Creative Pros, Picture & Sound Facilities and Broadcast, Corporate, Government, & Non-Profit.

A close relationship with these sectors is a mayor priority in MM-Audio to maintain a leading participation in each segment.

MM-Audio works in sync with hundreds of suppliers around the world. With many from the United States, to as far as China, Taiwan and Korea. Many of its suppliers work exclusively with MM-Audio supplying exclusive technologies in these competitive markets. Therefore, a close relationship involving confidential information about procedures, products and solutions flow uninterrupted from suppliers to MM-Audio.

Marketing intermediaries:
MM-Audio works with three mayor brackets of distribution.
1.- Its own distribution centers in North America, Europe, Asia and Middle East.
2.- Franchises: Sound and Film Production suppliers that work with movie production companies (BC production companies are well known for being an important player in this segment); and
3.- The retail music stores (think Tom Lee Music Store in Vancouver, as an example). And MM-Audio e-commerce stores for home and semi-professional users.

Customer market:
The driver of MM-Audio operations is the customer. Is, as is being explained in previous postings, divided in several segments that target specific needs with precise solutions.

These segments are: Education, Home, Enthusiasts Artists & Creative Pros, Picture & Sound Facilities and Broadcast, Corporate, Government, & Non-Profit.

MM-Audio maintain an harmonious [[microenvironment]], working to keep an excellent relationship with all its competitors. Great communication between the players in the industry assure MM-Audio being informed about changes in external environments like laws and regulations that influence MM-Audio products and services. At the same time, MM-Audio belong to several trade organizations that watch these changes and voice concerns.

On the other side, MM-Audio participate in cooperation with other players in seminars, trade shows, cultural festivals and awards.

MM-Audio main competitors are:
Chyron Corporation
Thomson SA
Apple Inc.
Creative Technology Ltd.
SeaChange International
Sony Corporation
Hauppauge Digital, Inc.
LOUD Technologies, Inc.
Accom, Inc.
Harris Corporation
Korg Technologies (in certain markets).
Yamaha (in certain markets).

MM-Audio interact with several publics. Being a public company in several countries, shareholders and financial publics are one of the most important as well as the final users. Banks, lenders, capital suppliers and tax authority (which is as well a government public, play an important role).

Media public carries the voice of clients and other publics, being in itself a public. The Public Relations and Communications Department if focused on this primary public and its needs. The media reviews such as the ones that appear on magazines and specialized seminars play a key role in MM-Audio acceptance.

Government: Many regulations, local, regional and federal have an impact in the making and distribution of MM-Audio products and services. Therefore, every level of government is important to the company and MM-Audio makes sure there's a two ways fluid communication.

Citizen-action public: This public, which is seen in MM-Audio as NGO's organizations, have a dedicated division in the Communications department. NGOs have strong voices, and MM-Audio listen carefully to them, positively reacting to their suggestions.

General public: A great amount of work is being done in the last five years at MM-Audio to establish a good relationship with this public. The main goal is to seek the approval of this public.

Since big changes in the company (such as the acquisition of two competitors few years back), the general public (and the government public) saw it with mixed eyes, due to the though of fewer options in products and lack of fair competition in certain markets. But good outcomes were the result of good relationships with all the actors in the microenvironment. 
Through correct analyzing our macro environment, we can establish an efficient marketing mix. So it causes MM-Audio to satisfy more [[customer]]s and business’s needs. Consumers gain better understanding of the products and how it can satisfy them. On the other hand, it can also help the company increase their quantity of sales, gain profits and market share.

We understand we don't have control over these environments.

Demographics directly influence MM-Audio in the production and distribution of its products and solutions.

The company conduct their own, and acquire third party knowledge about demographics in determined markets throughout the world. Some products are offered in certain markets and others are modified to suit specific needs and follow certain demographics factors, particularly in the retail segment.

For instance, certain semi-professional hardware audio products are directly targeted to the baby boom audio aficionado market in North America. Others, like in Asia, are targeted to women, particularly in Japan and China in the entry level audio production segment. Following the increment in their disposable income and independence.

The world economic situation has definitely greatly impacted MM-Audio in certain ways.

MM-Audio revenues and operating results depend on several variables and may fluctuate from period to period. And the current economic situation limited certain perspectives.

As well other economic factors affect our performance and this factors are uncontrollable:

-Timing and acceptance of new product introductions by us and our competitors;

-Competitive pressure on product pricing;

-Mix of products and services sold;

-Our ability to recognize revenues from large or enterprise-wide sales;

-Length of sales cycles and associated costs;

-Global macroeconomic conditions, like the one we are suffering at the present time.

-Changes in operating expenses;

-Changes in foreign currency exchange rates;

-Remedial costs and reputational harm associated with product defects or errors;

-Seasonal factors, such as higher consumer demand at year-end; and

-Price protections and provisions for inventory obsolescence extended to resellers and distributors.

The occurrence and interaction of these variables may cause MM-Audio revenues and operating results to fluctuate from period to period.
We expect the global economic downturn to continue to have a negative impact our business, although the magnitude of that impact is uncertain.

We believe that the global economic downturn negatively affected our revenues and operating results in 2008. We expect that trend to continue in the future, although we are unable to predict the duration of the downturn or the magnitude of its impact on our business.

To the extent our customers have been or expect to be negatively impacted by the economic downturn in their own businesses, we anticipate that they may delay or postpone purchases of our solutions. 

Of additional concern, certain of our professional customers rely on credit to finance purchases of our solutions, including through third-party leasing arrangements that we offer. 

To the extent credit is unavailable, even customers otherwise willing to proceed with purchases might be unable to do so unless or until they are able to arrange for alternative financing. Additionally, certain of our customers have become insolvent, and others may become so in the future. 
We may also be affected to the extent the economic downturn negatively impacts our resellers and distributors. Our resellers and distributors have in some cases, and may in the future, reduce on-hand inventory of our products as a precaution.

The natural environment, that involve resources needed to be utilized to the production of new products -including availability of raw materials, affect MM-Audio activities and performance and final product's price.

Disruption or failure of our networks or systems, or injury or damage to our personnel or physical infrastructure, caused by a natural disaster, public health crisis, terrorism, cyber attack, act of war or other catastrophic event may significantly limit our ability to conduct business as normal, including our ability to communicate and transact with our customers, suppliers, distributors and resellers, and negatively affect our revenues and operating results.

The threat or occurrence of a catastrophic event may create additional economic uncertainties that could adversely affect our business and the markets in ways that cannot be predicted. We are predominantly uninsured for losses and disruptions caused by catastrophic events, and we may not have a sufficiently comprehensive enterprise-wide disaster recovery plan in place.

We are aware of the different trends and changes in the natural environment.

Our international operations require us to comply with myriad environmental, tax and export laws, as well as other business regulations.

The risks associated with these laws and regulations may from time to time include, among other things, high compliance costs, rapid adoption requirements, inconsistencies among jurisdictions, and a lack of administrative or judicial interpretative guidance.

We, at MM-Audio, additionally tend to encounter in our international operations longer collection cycles for accounts receivable and, as discussed in a previous risk factor, greater difficulties in protecting our intellectual property.

The technological environment is a mayor input and factor in the performance at MM-Audio. Changes in this environment directly influence out research and development cost, but at the same time, technological advances allow us to reduce costs and to offer better solutions to our customers.

Research and Development Technological Costs:
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, except for costs of internally developed or externally purchased software that qualify for capitalization, what means that, if we are able to sell this new technology, we consider this technological environment an investment; if we are not being able to sell it (capitalized it) we thus consider it as a technological cost.

Therefore, the technological environment always directly affect our balance sheet and our profits.

The political environment affects MM-Audio directly. In many ways, in many categories of the making and the provision of its solutions. Many rules and regulation, form environment to politically charged banning in events sponsored by MM-Audio.

The political changes in market such as China, Japan, and now more notably Eastern Europe countries affect the way MM-Audio deliver its products and services, limiting in many ways eventual investments and potential income.

Political factors aren't seen at MM-Audio only as government regulatory bodies, but as well, as local rules and dispositions in places where  we operate.

Additionally, given the complex, sophisticated nature of our solutions and our typically lengthy product development cycles, we may not be able to rapidly change our product direction or strategic course.

If we are unable to accurately predict market trends or adapt to evolving political environments, our ability to innovate and capture customer demand will suffer and our financial performance and market reputation will be negatively affected.

Even to the extent we make accurate predictions, political changes (such as trade taxes, cuotas, tariffs and the prohibition of certain raw materials included in our products, plus changes in international trade agreements,  and regulations) can change after our products are finished and are ready to be internationally delivered. Those changes can prohibit the delivery of our products, thus, increasing inventory that is non-commercially feasible. Therefore, incrementing our costs.

Many organizations and forces that influence society principles affect MM-Audio success.

Favorably, cultural environments and changes such as women independence, younger generations with incremented disposable income, changes in the cultural values that lean more to independence and curiosity, permit MM-Audio to integrate a broader part of the population, providing our publics with a variety multicultural 'micro-markets' that allow us to increment our participation as a business.

Core beliefs of success, better future, and most important, creativity, allow MM-Audio to participate in sync with a harmonious society in several markets.

Secondary beliefs, are changing in the last decade in a trend favorable to companies like MM-Audio. For instance, younger markets living by themselves  allow them to create environments that permit to have, for example, a home audio studio, and to spend a larger amount of income in hobbies.

MM-Audio maintain a full-time team analyzing secondary beliefs in many markets and we acquire, form time to time third party studies and analysis that provide us with insights about this societal changes.    
Due to the environmental change in the attitude of the markets towards conventional newspapers and the growing of different alternatives to get informed (cellphones, smartpohnes, e-reader devices, satellite, TiVo, free wifi internet conections, etc). Newspapers need to rapidly evolve or face the end of their days.

Facing this situation, The Wall Street Journal is taking a proactive action to affect the forces in their marketing environment. Doing so, is expected to begin charging nonsubscribers 'micropayments' for access to individual articles.

A "sophisticated micropayments service" will be launched this autumn. The system would charge small fees to occasional users who may not be willing to pay more than $100 a year for a subscription to the WSJ.com, Journal's Web site.

The Journal is one of the few large daily newspapers still managing to charge for online content. The New York Times abandoned a two-year experiment with the Web-subscription model in 2007, suggesting that the company's projections for subscriber revenue were small compared with advertising sales.

Word of the payment model emerges as newspapers seek relief from plunging circulation and advertising revenue. As readers have increasingly gone online for their news, papers have suffered declining subscriber numbers and lower advertising revenue, resulting in a dramatic industry contraction. Many newspapers have announced staffing cuts in the past year, and some have warned that they may face closure soon if they can't enact further cuts or find buyers for their operations.
Week 07 - Discussion 2 (Reference Chapter 7)

A market segment is a group of people with similar characteristics. A target market is simply a market segment that the company chooses to direct their marketing activities at. It is an important for you to understand that there is really no difference in the way a marketer describes a target market, or a market segment —each is a group of people with similar characteristics.

Discuss the target market or market segment of your organization

MM-Audio markets segments are
    * Education
    * Home Enthusiasts
    * Artists & Creative Pros
    * Picture & Sound Facilities
    * Broadcast
    * Corporate, Government, & Non-Profit

The target markets of each MM-Audio brands are some market segments that offer the potential of being participants as company customers. Each of those segments is divided on subgroups depending on characteristics such as demographics, behaviour, psycographics and age and lyfe-cycle, among other differentiators in various countries and regions.

The company decided to target certain segments according to several analysis performed from time to time on the market, changing direction continually, when the conditions required to do so.

For instance, some solutions are targeted to wealthy customers - Income Segmentation -. This products maintain similar features compared to its lower versions counterparts, but the products are branded differently, and offer extra status rewards such as regular invitations to trade shows and conferences, etc.
<html><span style="font-family: arial;">At the supermarket I found 3 different competing brands of ground coffee products.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><br style="font-family: arial;"><big style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">1. Starbucks Breakfast Blend Coffee, Ground, 12-Ounce Bags.
</span></big><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">The product is ground coffee in a hermetic plastic bag.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">Isn't transparent so, we can't see the content.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-weight: bold; font-family: arial;">Package Function:</span><span style="font-family: arial;"> Ease of carrying the product. 

The colors and logo are associated with the Starbucks coffee chain, so implies that the customer will take the same values and perceptions to home.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><br style="font-family: arial;"><big style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">2. Millstone Foglifter Ground Coffee, 11-Ounce Packages.</span></big><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">The product is ground coffee in a vacuum hermetic plastic bag.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">The advantage here is the 'vacuum' process of packaging, offering a better kept product on the shelve, with less oxygen content to avoid oxidation.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-weight: bold; font-family: arial;">Package Function:</span><span style="font-family: arial;"> Ease of carrying the product. Durability.

The colors and logo printings offer somewhat status and refinement.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><big style="font-family: arial;"><br><span style="font-weight: bold;">3 illy Caffe Decaf Fine Grind (Green Band) Coffee, 8.8 Ounce Tins.</span></big><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">The product is ground coffee in a aluminum tin.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-weight: bold; font-family: arial;">Package Function: </span><span style="font-family: arial;">The best package. </span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">The advantage here is the material of the package. Is a hard material package. The fact is a tin instead of a bag offer resistance, stackability, durability and longer shelve life.</span><br style="font-family: arial;"><span style="font-family: arial;">The colors and logo printings offer expertise, tradition, taste and European style.</span></html>
LifeCycle of MM-Audio Film and Video Media Composer (of MM-Audio)

MM-Audio Inc. (Avid) was founded in 1987 by William J Warner. He developed a system to copy video footage in real time to digital hard disks to allow editors to more easily view shots and quickly make trial cuts and changes [Idea Generation]. Warner originally designed the system on an Apollo computer. When Warner's preliminary system came to the attention of Apple Computer Inc. in the fall of 1988, he was persuaded to switch to a Macintosh computer.

MM-Audio and Apple became informal partners, with MM-Audio receiving marketing help, technical support, and distribution matching from Apple. At the time the Apple Development Group was working with some 10,000 similar companies that were developing hardware and software for the Macintosh [Idea Screening].

The original idea was tested ans re - oriented by a newly formed R&D team, and in 1989 MM-Audio introduced its Media Composer system, a digital nonlinear editing system that revolutionized the film and video post-production process by providing editors with faster, more intuitive, and more creative ways to work than was possible with traditional analog linear methods [Concept Developing and Testing].

In linear editing, the editor starts at the beginning and continues chronologically to the end. Nonlinear video editing, on the other hand, is not necessarily chronological; it depends on the rapid recall and utilization of any segment of the original video sequences.

The company proceeded to test the business availability of this new line of product. Understood its revolutionary potential and offered a licensed version to be customized and resold by other companies. Its release received support from some 20 companies that studied and tested the product, among them Eastman Kodak Co., Polaroid Corp., and C-Cube Microsystems Inc [Business Analysis] and [Test Marketing].

MM-Audio's marketed this new idea and offered this new product to the market. MM-Audio studied the market and the business availability and was able to price its Media Composer system between $50,000 and $80,000.

All the monitors and tape recorders that were previously needed to get from one place to the next in the video editing process was eliminated by this new product. MM-Audio did it on a PC-based platform and in a visual way that let editors click directly on an image [Marketing Strategy Development] and [Business Analysis].

By this time MM-Audio's Media Composer system for professional TV and film post-production was in use at nearly 1,000 global movie studios [Commercialization].

In other words, MM-Audio media composer was ''introduced'' with great success. 

But, the competition didn't want to wait to be passed by. Apple while at the same time was supporting the product, its enormous R&D department was studying the technology and looking ways to improve the technology, which is at the same time a healthy and encouraging business practice because drive competition, and the improvements are enjoyed by the consumers.

Few years later the products was a growing very fast into the adoption on the market and was setting a standard in the industry. ''Growth Stage''.

But, just few years ago, 2006 (aprox.) many companies (supported by Microsoft and others start ups supported by Intel) came up with similar solutions. So, MM-Audio's Media Composer was started to feel he challenge entering a plateau in the market share and the acceptance (at the same time, technology advance exponentially every year).

2007 was a defining moment for MM-Audio's Media Composer, when Apple allowed other third party companies to offer non-Linear digital editors for Mac corporate systems. This factor, among others moved the Media Composer product to a ''maturity'' stage, offering successful margin and great profits and prestigious awards internationally even today. But a MM-Audio is as well offering a whole new array of products, with embed great technology, entirely digital, with mobile applications and distance simultaneously cutting and editing over internet protocols for global movie studios, because MM-Audio foresee that in few years (or few quarters), the great original Media Composer will enter its ''decline'' stage.
Visit a large department store, drugstore, or grocery store and find products that you believe are in the:

    * PLC - Introduction Stage
    * PLC - Growth Stage
    * PLC - Maturity Stage
    * PLC - Decline Stage

- PLC - Introduction Stage
Navitas Naturals Organic Goji Berries Himalayan Superfruit, 16-Ounce Pouch.

I believe this particular organic tropical fruit (considered a "super food" by some) is on the introduction stage, because is fairly new on the shelves and we can read on the media (mainly magazine articles, explaining what this product is and what proprieties has. In their advertising campaigns we see the company is introducing the product), therefore, we can safely deduce the company assumes the public doesn't know much about this food. Then, is in the intro stage.

- PLC -Growth Stage
Dove Beauty Bar, White, 4.25-Ounce Bars

I think the Dove Beauty Bar is in the growth stage because all the hype about the "Real beauty campaign" is fading. Which means the company maybe feels comfortable with the development of the product at this point after 5 years in the market since we don't see much advertising now. I assume then, the product is growing in sales, increasing profits and gaining market share for the company.

- PLC - Maturity Stage
Nestle Milo Chocolate Tin 14 Oz

Nestle Milo is being around in the market for years. I believe this product is very popular among North American families and is a must in many houses with small kids. The company must be happy with the performance of the product but I doubt it'll increase much in the market share in the years to come because is already settle in the position it has and the competition is abundant.

- PLC - Decline Stage
Just Relax - Relaxing to Meditate CD

Is almost funny to see small relaxing CD music stands in the supermarkets (sometimes close to the cashiers section), when everybody talks about iPods and Ipod Touches and Media Players, iPhones and Palm Pres, where you get any type of music you want through their mobile digital stores for pennies (iTunes and others). I definitely see this product in the decline stage.
I learnt that every company needs to understand their product probably won't last forever. I use to think the products where created with an idea in mind and then launched and commercialized in a linear succession of stages, -which is not always the case- hoping the market will like it, buy it, and love it forever. 

I understood companies need to be prepared with an exit strategy, being ready for the decline stage of the product, understanding that keeping it alive might damage the development of new products, the brand image, and the ability to react to new products from the competition.

Many firms might want to set styles with their new products, but might only get a quick fad. At least the organization can learn from the quick success and get ready to set up a new trend again.

We as marketers always want to wow the publics, satisfy their needs, but those needs continually change. So we need to be ready for that new hype, embrace it, and take advantage of it.
This is a marketing and promotion strategies dynamic Wiki created by Mauricio "Acid" Ortiz.
Much of the concepts are based on the Marketing Communications Management (IntegratedMarketingCommunications) course dictated on BCIT (British Columbia Institute of Technology), Vancouver, Canada.

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Mauricio's email: mauricio.ortiz.mail@gmail.com
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Good products and marketing programs start with a complete understanding  of customer needs and wants. Thus, the company needs sound information to produce superior value and satisfaction for customers. The company also requires information on competitors, resellers, and other factors and forces in the marketplace. Increasingly, marketers are viewing information not only as a input for making better decisions but also as an important strategic asset and marketing tool.
1. The idea must precede the expression.
- They must relate to the reader.
- They must engage the reader's attention.
- They must concern the reader.
- The must be in the reader's interest.

2. Prepare a rough draft.
- Writing usually improves in with a second look.

3. Simplify.
The simpler the better.

4. Writing must be aimed to a particular audience.
To gain an audience the writer must be willing to sacrifice others.
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A joint venture in which the domestic firm supplies the management expertise to a foreign company that supplies the capital; the domestic firm export management services rather than products.
Data or information that has been gathering and published by ''other'' parties.
Is the portion of the customer's purchasing in its [[product]] categories that a company gets.
A tax levied by a government against certain imported goods to either raise revenue or to protect domestic firms.